Gene E. Likens

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Box AB, 2801 Sharon Turnpike
Millbrook, New York 12545
Telephone: 845-677-5343
FAX: 845-677-5976


Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Zoology, 1962
M.S. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Zoology, 1959
B.S. Manchester College, Biology, 1957

Professional Positions:
  • Founding Director and President (1993), Distinguished Senior Scientist of Institute of Ecosystem Studies and Mary Flagler Cary Arboretum (1983), President Emeritus (2007), Distinguished Senior Scientist Emeritus (2007), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY (present)
  • Special Advisor to President of UCONN on Environmental Affairs (2012) and Distinguished Research Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, November 2004-present
  • G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, April 2000-2008;
  • Vice President, The New York Botanical Garden, 1983-1993
  • Associate Professor/Professor/ Chairman, Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, 1969-83; Charles A. Alexander Professor of Biological Sciences, 1983; Adjunct Professor of Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, 1983-present
  • Assistant Professor/Associate Professor of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, 1963-69
  • Professor of Biology, Yale University, March 1984-present
  • Professor, Graduate Field of Ecology, Rutgers University, May 1985-present
  • Adjunct Professor, State University of Albany, Albany, NY, May 2003-present
  • Honorary Professor, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, October 2009-present

  • Research Interests and Activities:
    Gene E. Likens co-founded the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study in 1963. His long-term research at Hubbard Brook has focused on the biogeochemistry of forest and associated stream ecosystems, as well as the Mirror Lake ecosystem. Special research interests include air-land-water interactions, quantitative analysis of ecosystems, the nature and history of acid rain and the effect of air pollutants on ecosystems, the biology and behavior of salamanders, and experimental manipulation studies of entire ecosystems. Likens currently is on the Board of the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation, Chairman of the Information Oversight Subcommittee, a Co-Principal Investigator on the Long-Term Ecological Research Project, and Principal Investigator of the Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology Project. He is responsible for the collection, analysis and data management of the long-term data sets for precipitation chemistry, streamwater chemistry and lakewater chemistry of the HBES.

    Distinguished Awards and Memberships:
    2008 Black Rock Forest Consortium\'s Dr. E. G. Stillman Award; 2006 Elected to American Philosophical Society; 2003 Blue Planet Prize for outstanding scientific research achievements and help to solve global environmental problems. The Asahi Glass Foundation, Tokyo, Japan (with F.H. Bormann); 2001 National Medal of Science; 2001 - 2007 President, Societas Internationalis Limnologiae; 2003, Past President, 2002 President, 2001 President-Elect, American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS); 2000 AIBS Lifetime Accomplishment Award, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC; 1995 Eminent Ecologist, Ecological Society of America; , 1995 Naumann-Thienemann Medal, Societas Internationalis Limnologiae; 1994 The Australia Prize [for Science & Technology]; 1993 The Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement; 1990 AIBS Distinguished Service Award; 1988 International ECI Prize 1988 in Limnetic Ecology, The Ecology Institute; 1986 The New York Academy of Sciences Award for outstanding contributions to science, including its interaction with society; 1983 Regents Medal of Excellence, Bicentennial of Board of Regents and University of State of New York; 1982 First Recipient of the G. E. Hutchinson Medal for excellence in research, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography; 1980 U.S. Forest Service 75th Anniversary Award for significant contributions to forestry and conservation; 1972-73 Guggenheim Fellowship; 1969 American Motors Conservation Award; , 1979 elected to The American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 1981 National Academy of Sciences; [foreign member] 2000 Elected Exchange Fellow, Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1994 Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 1988 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; 1991 British Ecological Society [Honorary Member]; 1981 81 President of Ecological Society of America; 1976-77 President of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography.

    Selected Publications:

    Holmes, R. T. and G. E. Likens. 2016. Hubbard Brook: The Story of a Forest Ecosystem. Yale University Press, New Haven. 270 pp.

    Wilson, A. M. and G. E. Likens. 2015. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0134454. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134454. (altmetric score – 318)

    Likens, G. E. and D. C. Buso. 2012. Dilution and the elusive baseline. Environ. Sci. Tech. 46(8):4382-4387. doi:10.1021/es3000189

    Winter, T. C. and G. E. Likens (eds.). 2009. Mirror Lake: Interactions Among Air, Land and Water. University of California Press.

    Likens, G. E. (Editor-in-Chief). 2009. Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Elsevier: Oxford.

    Likens, G. E. and D. C. Buso. 2006. Variation in streamwater chemistry throughout the Hubbard Brook Valley. Biogeochemistry 78:1-30.

    Macneale, K. H., B. L. Peckarsky and G. E. Likens. 2005. Stable isotopes identify dispersal patterns of stonefly populations living along stream corridors. Freshwater Biology 50:1117-1130.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, M. J. Mitchell, G. M. Lovett, S. W. Bailey, T. G. Siccama, W. A. Reiners and C. Alewell. 2002. The biogeochemistry of sulfur at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 60:235-316.

    Likens, G. E., T. J. Butler and D. C. Buso. 2001. Long- and short-term changes in sulfate deposition: Effects of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Biogeochemistry 52(1):1-11.

    Wetzel, R. G. and G. E. Likens. 2000. Limnological Analyses. Third Edition. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 429 pp.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, T. G. Siccama, C. E. Johnson, G.M. Lovett, T. J. Fahey, W. A. Reiners, D. F. Ryan, C. W. Martin and S. W. Bailey. 1998. The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41(2):89-173.

    Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll and D. C. Buso. 1996. Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science 272:244-246.

    Likens, G. E. 1992. The Ecosystem Approach: Its Use and Abuse. Excellence in Ecology, Book 3. Ecology Institute, Oldendorf-Luhe, Germany. 166 pp.

    Likens, G. E. 1989. Some aspects of air pollution on terrestrial ecosystems and prospects for the future. Ambio 18:172-178.

    Likens, G. E. (ed.). 1985. An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology: Mirror Lake and its Environment. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 516 pp.

    Bormann, F. H. and G. E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 253 pp.

    Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, R. S. Pierce, J. S. Eaton and N. M. Johnson. 1977. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 146 pp. (2nd edition - 1995, 3rd edition - 2013).

    Likens, G. E. and F. H. Bormann. 1974. Acid rain: a serious regional environmental problem. Science 184(4142):1176-1179.

    Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann and N. M. Johnson. 1972. Acid rain. Environment 14(2):33-40.

    Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, N. M. Johnson, D. W. Fisher and R. S. Pierce. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr. 40(1):23-47. (Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index identified Likens et al. Ecological Monographs 40:23 [1970], as one of the most cited items in its field; Citation Classic in Current Contents 12(36):28, 1981.)

    Co-Authors and Collaborators:
    2008-2013: Argerich, A. (Oregon St.); Armesto, J. (Catholica U., Chile); Bailey, A. (USFS); Bailey, S.W. (USFS, Hubbard Brook); Banks, S. (ANU, Canberra); D. Burns (USGS); D. Buso (CIES); Butler, T.J. (CIES); Campbell, J. (UNH); Conley, D. (Lund U., Sweden); Cosentino, B. (Indianapolis); Creed, I. (U. Western Ontario); Eviner, V. (U. CA); Findlay, S. (CIES); J. Franklin (U. Washington); Glazer, A. (Stanford); Green, M. (Plymouth St.); Greene, B. (Cornell); Groffman, P.M. (CIES); Hamburg, S. (Brown); Hobbs, R. (Australia); Holmes, R.T. (Dartmouth College); Howarth, R. (Cornell U.); Johnson, C. E. (Syracuse U.); Judd, K. (E. Michigan U.); Kaushal, S.S. (U. MD); Kerr, J.G. (USGS); Kraft, C. (Cornell U.); Krebs, C. (Canada); LaBaugh, J. (USGS); Lindenmayer, D. (ANU, Canberra); Lovett, G.M. (CIES); Lowe, W. (U. Montana); McGuire, K. (VA Tech); McPeek, M.A. (Dartmouth); Mitchell, M.J. (ESF SUNY Syracuse); Pace, M. (U. Virginia); Paerl, H. (NC); Rhoades, C. (U. Colorado); Rosenberry, D.O. (USGS, Lakewood, CO); Ross, D. (U. VT); Rozzi, R. (U. Texas); Saccone, L. (Lund U., Sweden); Shanley, J. (U. VT); Searchinger, T. (Princeton); Sebestyan, S. D. (USFS); Strayer, D.L. (CIES); Svensson, T. (Sweden); Torgersen, C. (U. Washington); Vermeylen, F.M. (Cornell U.); Warren, D.R. (Cornell); Weathers, K. (CIES); Winter, T.C. (deceased); Yanai, R.D. (SUNY ESF, Syracuse); Youngentob, K. (ANU, Canberra)

    Postdoctoral Associates:
    Bade, D. (Kent State U.); Berger, T.W. (U. Bodenkultur, Vienna); Bukaveckas, P.A. (U. VA); Caraco, N. (CIES); deNoyelles, F. (U. KS); Hall, Jr., R.O. (U. WY, Laramie); Hall, R.J. (Environment Canada); Havas, M. (Trent U.); Hedin, L. (Princeton U.); Hendrey, G. (Brookhaven National Lab); Galloway, J. (U. VA); Gosz, J. (U. NM); Jordan, M. (The Nature Conservancy); Judd, K. (Eastern Michigan U.); Lowe, W. (U. MT); Mattson, M. (U. MA); McCutchan, J. (CO State U.), Peterson, B. (Marine Biological Laboratory); Stelzer, R. (U. WI-Oshkosh), Tartowski, S. (AR State U.)

    Graduate Students:
    Baines, S. (U. WI); Basnet, K. (Kathmandu U.); Bennett, S. (Seattle, WA); Bernhardt, E. (Duke U.); Bilby, R. (NOAA, Seattle); Burton, T. (Michigan St. U.); Chisholm, S. (MIT); Christ, M. (U. WV); Cogbill, C. (Middlebury College); Cole, J. (CIES); Cyr, H.(McGill U.); Fiance, S. (?); Fisher, S. (AR St. U.); Gerhart, D. (U. MN, Duluth); Hedin, L. (Princeton U.); Larison, J. (OR S. U.); Lewis, G. (Fuhrman St. U.); Macneale, K. H. (NOAA, Seattle); Makarewicz, J. (SUNY Brockport); Marino, R. (Cornell U.); Masza, D. (Brooklyn, NY); Mattson, M. (U. Massachusetts-Amherst); Mayer, M. (St. Lawrence U.); McDowell, W. (U. NH, Durham); Meyer, J. (U. GA); Moeller, R. (deceased); Nodvin, S. (deceased); Ochs, C. (U. MS); Pulis, L. (Plymouth, MA); Redmond, S. (UCONN), Skogan, K. (U. Chicago); Sloane-Richey, J. (Seattle); Steinhart, G. (Cornell U.); Strayer, D. (CIES); Tartowski, S. (AR State U.); Thornton, G. (Knoxville, TN); Walters, R. (Seattle, WA); Weathers, K. (CIES) Wilson, A. (Yale)

    Graduate Advisor:
    Arthur D. Hasler

    Title at Hubbard Brook:
    Principal Investigator