Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Chemistry of Mirror Lake water column 1967 - 2010
TITLE
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Chemistry of Mirror Lake water column 1967 - 2010
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Gene E. Likens
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
2801 Sharon Turnpike
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA

Phone: (845) 677-5343
ABSTRACT:
Numerous studies have been conducted on Mirror Lake since the mid-1960s, including extensive physical, chemical, biological, and paleoecological research (Likens 1985). This data set includes chemistry data for water samples collected approximately monthly at an anchored buoy station located at the deepest part (11 m at full pool) of Mirror Lake. Measurements include ANC, DIC, DO, base cations, pH, ammonium, anions, temperature and dissolved silica.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
acid neutralizing capacity, anc, ammonium, calcium, chemistry, chloride, DIC, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved oxygen, DO, HBEF Mirror Lake Study, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, lake, magnesium, nitrate, pH, phosphate, potassium, profile, silica, specific conductance, sodium, sulfate, temperature, water column.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
inorganic nutrients.
BEGIN DATE
1967-06-28
END DATE
2010-10-29
LOCATION
Central buoy station on Mirror Lake
West bounding coordinate: -71.696076
East bounding coordinate: -71.689735
North bounding coordinate: 43.945922
South bounding coordinate: 43.940460
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Mirror Lake is 15 ha in area, and an oligotrophic (low productivity), clearwater (Secchi transparency 6 to 7 m), natural water body adjacent to HBEF. The lake normally mixes in spring and fall, and is ice-covered from about 1 December to about 15 April each year. Numerous studies have been conducted on Mirror Lake since the mid-1960s, including extensive physical, chemical, biological, and paleoecological research which are described in detail in the book: An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology (Likens, 1985).
SAMPLING DESIGN
Water samples are collected in a boat from an anchored buoy station, or from the ice surface located at the deepest part (11 m at full pool) of Mirror Lake. Samples for ion analysis are collected in acid-washed, deionized water-rinsed, polyethylene bottles, using a manual closure, plastic VanDorn collector bottle (before 1990), triggered at discrete depths, or lifted to the surface through weighted vinyl tubing by peristaltic pump (since 1990). DO and DIC samples are collected in standard glass BOD bottles. Typically, water samples are taken from the surface (<0.5m), and at depths of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 meters. The usual sampling interval is 4 to 6 times each year, especially at times of maximum and minimum thermal stratfication. Temperatures are determined by thermistor probe (Whitney, YSI, or Digisense Models).
DATA DESCRIPTION
Concentrations (mg/L) in lake water samples from discrete depths. Base cation, pH, and dissolved oxygen data are available since 1967. Ammonium, anions, phosphate, and dissolved silica have been measured routinely since 1970, although some data are available prior to these dates for each solute. Other standard data include temperature and specific conductance at each depth. Prior to 1990, not all records have complete solute arrays. Since 1990, dissolved in-organic carbon (DIC) and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC; alkalinity) have also been measured on a routine basis, although prior data do exist.
REFERENCES
  • Bade, D.L., Bouchard, K., and Likens, G.E. 2009. Algal co-limitation by N and P persists after 30 years in Mirror Lake (New Hampshire, USA). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30:1121-1123.
  • Buso, D.C., Likens, G.E., and Eaton, J.S. 2000. Chemistry of precipitation, streamwater, and lakewater from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: a record of sampling protocols and analytical procedures. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-275. 52 pp.USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA.
  • Buso, D.C., Likens, G.E., LaBaugh, J.W., and Bade, D.L. 2009. Nutrient dynamics. In [Eds.], Mirror Lake: Interactions among Air, Land and Water, 69-203University of California Press.
  • Likens, G.E. 1972. Mirror Lake: its past, present and future?. Appalachia 39(2):23-41.
  • Likens, G.E. 1985. An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology: Mirror Lake and its Environment.
  • Likens, G.E., and Buso, D.C. 2010. Salinization of Mirror Lake by road salt. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 205:205-214.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Access Guidelines for Mirror Lake Datasets


We are happy to share these data on the chemistry of Hubbard Brook ecosystems. The public dissemination of these data that we have collected is a responsibility that we take very seriously. As stewards of these long-term data, our highest priorities are:


a. to maintain the integrity of these long-term data;


b. to allow adequate time for the analysis, quality assurance, and publication of results by principal investigators;


c. to acknowledge properly and responsibly the appropriate funding sources.


Therefore, it is HBES policy to make these data available on this web page two years after the date of collection. Also, in sharing these data with users like yourself, we ask that you adhere to the following guidelines as a matter of common courtesy and ethical responsibility:


1. Please inform us in advance of your interest and plans for use of these data (likensg@caryinstitute.org).


2. The sources of funding used to collect these data must be acknowledged properly. We will provide the appropriate information when we learn what data are being used.


3. We would like to review any manuscripts that utilize extensive amounts (e.g. multiple years) of these data. If data use is extensive, or if these data have not been published previously, it may be appropriate for us to be included as authors on publication that are generated given the additional requirements from us for analysis and interpretation.



Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: mlake-chm.txt
Description: Mirror Lake chemistry of water column
Notes on Data: Concentrations (mg/L) in lake water samples from discrete depths. Base cation, pH, and dissolved oxygen data are available since 1967. Ammonium, anions, phosphate, and dissolved silica have been measured routinely since 1970, although some data are available prior to these dates for each solute. Other standard data include temperature and specific conductance at each depth. Prior to 1990, not all records have complete solute arrays. Since 1990, dissolved in-organic carbon (DIC) and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC; alkalinity) have also been measured on a routine basis, although prior data do exist. These samples are physically located at the Robert S. Pierce Laboratory Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, N. Woodstock, NH. Values of 0.0 (zero) are below the detection limit of analysis NOTE REGARDING NITRATE DATA: After careful and exhaustive inter- and intra-laboratory tests we determined that nitrate concentrations in stream water were no longer remaining stable after collection, as they had in the past (see Buso, Likens and Eaton 2000). It is possible that the biological community in some streams of the HBEF has changed in recent years, affecting the nitrate concentration in complicated ways. While there was no systematic bias to the data, the situation occurred primarily during summer, when nitrate concentrations and streamflows are very low. Thus, we urge some caution in using the streamwater nitrate data collected since 2006, when nitrate stability was last confirmed. In 2013, new protocols were instituted to prevent decay of nitrate concentrations after collection and the problem has been resolved. There is no evidence that nitrate concentrations in the long-term precipitation record have been affected.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1DATESample dateYYYYMMDDnnone
2ZDepth in meters. All values are negative or zero, as they represent a z-index below the lake surface.meternnone
3Cacalcium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
4Mgmagnesium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
5Kpotassium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
6Nasodium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
7NH4ammonium concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
8pHpHdimensionlessn
-3.00
9SO4sulfate concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
10NO3nitrate concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
11Clchloride concentration in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.000
12PO4phosphate concentration in mg/L (soluble-reactive phosphate)milligramPerLitern
-3.000
13SiO2silica concentration in mg/L (measured as silicate)milligramPerLitern
-3.000
14ANCacid neutralizing capacity in microequivalents/LmicroEquivalentPerLitern
-3.0
15DICdissolved inorganic carbon in umoles/LmicroMolePerLitern
-3
16DOdissolved oyxgen in mg/LmilligramPerLitern
-3.00
17TEMPtemperature in degrees Ccelsiusn
-3.0
18SpCondspecific conductance corrected to 25CmicroSiemenPerCentimetern
-3.0


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
Ca
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
Mg
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
K
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
Na
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
NH4
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
pH
-3.00
Data missing or not taken at this time
SO4
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
NO3
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
Cl
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
PO4
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
SiO2
-3.000
Data missing or not taken at this time
ANC
-3.0
Data missing or not taken at this time
DIC
-3
Data missing or not taken at this time
DO
-3.00
Data missing or not taken at this time
TEMP
-3.0
Data missing or not taken at this time
SpCond
-3.0
Data missing or not taken at this time