Forest Floor Mass, Organic Matter and Chemistry in Watershed 5 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1982 Pre-Harvest Collection
TITLE
Forest Floor Mass, Organic Matter and Chemistry in Watershed 5 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1982 Pre-Harvest Collection
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Chris Johnson
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
151 Link Hall
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA

Phone: (315) 443-4425
Mary Arthur
Department of Forestry, University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40546
USA
OTHERS INVOLVED
Thomas G. Siccama
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
Steve Hamburg
Center for Environmental Studies, Urban Ecology Laboratory, Brown University
Providence, RI 02912
USA
Tom Huntington
US Geological Survey
3039 Amwiler Road
Suite 130
Atlanta, GA 30360-2824
USA
Tim Fahey
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
Charley Driscoll
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA
Gene Likens
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA
F.H. Bormann
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
New Haven, CT 06511
USA
ABSTRACT:
Watershed 5 was surveyed in 1982 and clearcut in 1983. A pre-cut forest floor survey was done in 1982. This data set includes organic matter mass, thickness and trace metals for samples collected in the summer of 1982 as two separate collections, one in July and one in August.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
forests, forest floor, HBEF Watershed 5, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, organic matter, soil, soil horizons, trace metals, watersheds.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
inorganic nutrients, disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
1982
END DATE
1982
LOCATION
Watershed 5 is a 22.5-ha watershed extending from 503-m at the weir to 755-m at the highest point on the ridge.
West bounding coordinate: -71.739375
East bounding coordinate: -71.731253
North bounding coordinate: 43.957167
South bounding coordinate: 43.948942
Elevation
Minimum: 503
Maximum: 755
(Unit: meter)
SAMPLING BACKGROUND
The forest was first sampled in 1982. The hydrology has been monitored since 1962. The stream water chemistry has been monitored since 1963. In 1982, before the clearcut, the watershed was forested by typical northern hardwood species (sugar maple, beech and yellow birch) on the lower 85 % of its area and by a montane boreal transition forest of red spruce, balsam fir and white birch on the highest 15%. Surveying techniques were used in 1982 to install a grid system of 360 grid units, each 25 x 25-m square. These grid units serve as the plot system. For more spatial information please visit the following links:
http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/maps/w5_veg_map.htm
http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/w5_grid_elevations.shtml
The watershed was surveyed in 1982 and clearcut in 1983. A pre-cut forest floor survey was done in 1982. This data set was collected in the summer of 1982 as two separate samplings, one in July and one in August. Post-cut surveys have been largely limited to the forest floor component of larger scale quantitative soil pit surveys. However, a post-cut forest floor survey was conducted in 1996. Repeated forest floor surveys are anticipated to continue as time and resources permit.
SAMPLING DESIGN
Each row of the Watershed 5 grid system of 25 x 25-m cells was considered a stratified sampling set and one or more cells was randomly chosen from these lines as cells to be sampled. Some rows are short, with only 2 to 4 cells and others are longer, up to 10 cells across. The longer rows may have 4 or 5 cells sampled. The short rows may have only one cell sampled. A separate set of grid cells was chosen for each sampling, but some cells were sampled both times.
In the first sampling in July, the "toss" method was used to locate the sample point within each grid cell. In the second sampling in August, the location of the sampling plot within each cell was selected by an x-y random number system and the location determined by pacing to the selected coordinates from the corner of the 25 x 25-m cell. Between the two samplings, 198 of the 360 cells were sampled in 1982 (235 sample points).
FIELD COLLECTION PROCEDURES
Once a sampling point was located by pacing, a 15 x 15-cm wooden template was placed on the forest floor and 4 nails were placed through pre-drilled holes, one on each corner. This served to hold the template in place on the forest floor and retain the forest floor material within the sample area beneath the template. A keyhole saw, clippers and a trowel were used to make a clean cut around the template, thus isolating a block of forest floor. The surrounding forest floor material was scraped back from the block leaving it as a pedestal. This block was then undercut in the mineral soil with a saw or trowel to sever any roots. Using a trowel slid beneath the block and our hands on top, the block was carefully picked up and turned over such as to rest on the wooden template. Any remaining mineral soil was carefully scraped away "up" to the bottom of the Oa layer of the forest floor. After all such mineral soil was removed, the thickness of the block was measured at the highest and lowest point on each of the 4 sides (8 measurements). The block was then placed in total in a plastic bag for return to the laboratory. (Note that in some years the forest floor was divided into sub layers --Oi, Oe Oa or combinations of these. In 1982 the whole of the forest floor was collected undivided).
NOTES
After this sampling was conducted in 1982, it was determined in our continuing sampling of the Watershed 6 forest floor, that separation of the forest floor at least into Oie and Oa, would have been better than no separation whatsoever. Therefore separation was implemented from 1987 onwards. It was also determined that air drying the Oa would have been preferable to oven drying. Air drying makes possible the determination of exchangeable nutrients, whereas oven drying alters the cation exchange complex. Air drying of the Oa was implemented from 1992 onwards.
LABORATORY PROCEDURES
The forest floor mass was oven dried at 80 oC to a constant weight. When each sample was dry, it was ground in a Wiley mill to pass a 2-mm screen. Large sticks, roots and stones that were too large to put into the mill were kept separate. The two parts were weighed after grinding. Samples of the ground forest floor were put in 4-oz. glass jars for long-term preservation in the Hubbard Brook archives.
For determination of organic content and chemical analysis, a 2.0-g sample of the oven dry ground material was placed in a pre-weighed crucible and ashed overnight at 475 oC. The ashed material was cooled and weighed. The ash was eluted with 10-ml of 6N HNO3 and heated for a few minutes (to a simmer) on a hot plate. The hot extract solution was poured into a filter paper in a funnel and into a 50-ml volumetric flask. The crucible and the material on the filter paper was rinsed several times with distilled deionized water. Following these several rinsings, the volume in the flask was brought up to 50-ml with the deionized water. The 50-ml of extract solution was then placed in 120-ml plastic bottles for storage until chemical analysis. The elements Zn, Pb and Cu were determined for each sample using an AA spectrophotometer.
CALCULATIONS
Concentrations of elements in the forest floor were calculated on an oven dry weight basis. Total amounts of the elements were estimated on a per square meter basis by extrapolating up from the 15 x 15-cm sample mass. Forty-eight of the 235 plots had multiple bags of forest floor which were processed and analyzed separately and put in separate jars. A weighted average, based on the mass of each bag, was calculated for the chemistry data and a single value reported for each plot. In order to conduct chemical analysis in the future, it is necessary to know the mass and LOI that each jar represents. Forest floor thickness, species contributing litter to the sample site, and E horizon intensity for each plot are given in Data Table 1. Mass of the forest floor and LOI are presented in Data Table 2. Amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb are presented in Data Table 3. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb are presented in Data Table 4.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



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Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

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Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: w582ffaa.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, August sampling - 119 15x15 cm excavated blocks, element amounts.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Copper (g/m2)Copper amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone
3Zinc (g/m2)Zinc amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone
4Lead (g/m2)Lead amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot

Data file: w582ffaj.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, July sampling - 116 15x15 cm excavated blocks, element amounts.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Copper (g/m2)Copper amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone
3Zinc (g/m2)Zinc amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone
4Lead (g/m2)Lead amount for forest floor in total (g/m2)gramPerMeterSquarednnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot

Data file: w582ffca.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, August sampling - 119 15x15 cm excavated blocks, element concentrations.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Copper (ppm)Copper concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone
3Zinc (ppm)Zinc concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone
4Lead (ppm)Lead concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot

Data file: w582ffcj.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, July sampling - 116 15x15 cm excavated blocks, element concentrations.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Copper (ppm)Copper concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone
3Zinc (ppm)Zinc concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone
4Lead (ppm)Lead concentration in sample (ppm of oven dry sample)numbernnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot

Data file: w582ffea.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, August sampling - 119 15x15 cm excavated blocks, field data.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2E CodeE horizon development intensitynoney
9
3Major species (1)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
4Major species (2)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
5Major species (3)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
6Total thickness (cm) (1)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
7Total thickness (cm) (2)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
8Total thickness (cm) (3)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
9Total thickness (cm) (4)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
10Total thickness (cm) (5)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
11Total thickness (cm) (6)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
12Total thickness (cm) (7)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
13Total thickness (cm) (8)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
plots 1 to 360 from the top of the watershed to the base (not all plots sampled)
Variable: E Code
Code
Description
0
absent
1
weak -- "salt and pepper"
2
moderate -- clearly present
3
excellent -- deep and well-developed
Variable: Major species (1 - 3)
Code
Description
ACSA
Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)
FAGR
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
BEAL
Betula alleghaniensis (Yellow birch)
FRAM
Fraxinus americana (White ash)
ACSP
Acer spicatum (Mountain maple)
ACPE
Acer pensylvanicum (Striped maple or moose wood)
ABBA
Abies balsamea (Balsam fir)
PIRU
Picea rubens (Red spruce)
BEPA
Betula papyrifera (White or paper birch)
SOAM
Sorbus americana (Mountain ash)
ACRU
Acer rubrum (Red maple)

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
E Code
9
missing data
Major species (1)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table
Major species (2)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table
Major species (3)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table

Data file: w582ffej.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, July sampling - 116 15x15 cm excavated blocks, field data.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2E CodeE horizon development intensitynoney
9
3Major species (1)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
4Major species (2)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
5Major species (3)One of the three most important species directly over the plotnoney
XXXX
6Total thickness (cm) (1)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
7Total thickness (cm) (2)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
8Total thickness (cm) (3)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
9Total thickness (cm) (4)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
10Total thickness (cm) (5)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
11Total thickness (cm) (6)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
12Total thickness (cm) (7)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone
13Total thickness (cm) (8)One of eight measures of thickness of forest floor block (in centimeters)centimeternnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
plots 1 to 360 from the top of the watershed to the base (not all plots sampled)

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
E Code
9
missing data
Major species (1)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table
Major species (2)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table
Major species (3)
XXXX
Place holder when only one or two species are present in table

Data file: w582ffma.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, August sampling - 119 15x15 cm excavated blocks, mass data.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Total Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of total mass of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
3OM Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of organic matter mass of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
4Stick Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of sticks/roots/stones of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
5LOI %Loss on ignition of forest floor (%)dimensionlessnnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot

Data file: w582ffmj.txt
Description: Hubbard Brook Forest Floor Data - Watershed 5 1982, July sampling - 116 15x15 cm excavated blocks, mass data.
Notes on Data: Original field data sheets are at Syracuse University, Civil and Environmental Engineering. Samples of forest floor material in jars are located in the USFS archive building at the HBEF in Woodstock, N.H. USA.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot#noneynone
2Total Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of total mass of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
3OM Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of organic matter mass of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
4Stick Mass kg/m2Oven dry wt of sticks/roots/stones of forest floor (kg/m2)kilogramPerMeterSquarednnone
5LOI %Loss on ignition of forest floor (%)dimensionlessnnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
A counting number representing an existent plot