Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Sediment Yield in Weir Basins
TITLE
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Sediment Yield in Weir Basins
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
John Campbell
USDA Forest Service
271 Mast Rd.
Durham, NH 03824
USA

Phone: (603)-868-7643
C. Wayne Martin
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603)-726-8902
ABSTRACT:
Each year the sediment that collects in the stilling basin behind the v-notch weir is measured, excavated, sampled, dried, and weighed for Watersheds 1 through 8. Oven-dry weights are then calculated for all of the sediment removed from the basin and extrapolated back over the watershed as mass of soil material lost per unit area.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
basins, forests, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, sediments, soil, watersheds, weir.
BEGIN DATE
1956
END DATE
2000
LOCATION
Weir 1
West bounding coordinate: -71.726501
East bounding coordinate: -71.726501
North bounding coordinate: 43.952034
South bounding coordinate: 43.952034
Weir 2
West bounding coordinate: -71.724174
East bounding coordinate: -71.724174
North bounding coordinate: 43.953358
South bounding coordinate: 43.953358
Weir 3
West bounding coordinate: -71.722816
East bounding coordinate: -71.722816
North bounding coordinate: 43.954872
South bounding coordinate: 43.954872
Weir 4
West bounding coordinate: -71.725792
East bounding coordinate: -71.725792
North bounding coordinate: 43.950176
South bounding coordinate: 43.950176
Weir 5
West bounding coordinate: -71.731918
East bounding coordinate: -71.731918
North bounding coordinate: 43.948845
South bounding coordinate: 43.948845
Weir 6
West bounding coordinate: -71.735641
East bounding coordinate: -71.735641
North bounding coordinate: 43.949940
South bounding coordinate: 43.949940
Weir 7
West bounding coordinate: -71.767075
East bounding coordinate: -71.767075
North bounding coordinate: 43.927509
South bounding coordinate: 43.927509
Weir 8
West bounding coordinate: -71.759521
East bounding coordinate: -71.759521
North bounding coordinate: 43.929436
South bounding coordinate: 43.929436
Weir 9
West bounding coordinate: -71.747185
East bounding coordinate: -71.747185
North bounding coordinate: 43.926014
South bounding coordinate: 43.926014
SAMPLING DESIGN
Each year the sediment that collects in the stilling basin behind the v-notch weir is measured, excavated, sampled, dried, and weighed. Oven-dry weights are then calculated for all of the sediment removed from the basin and extrapolated back over the watershed as mass of soil material lost per unit area.
WATERSHED SPECIFIC NOTES
WS-1 Sediment volumes have been estimated by the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area basis since 1956. However, data from 1960, 61, 62, and 64 are missing. It is unknown whether the data for 1963 and 1965 are for single or multiple years. Sediment mass was determined by collecting subsamples during the volume measurements. These subsamples were of measured volume. They were oven-dried and a volume to dry weight conversion was made for the entire basin based on the conversion factor of the subsample. For most years only one subsample was collected. Weir 1 is a 90 deg. sharp-crested V-notch weir with a 2-foot notch, but it is a very shallow weir and may not retain as much sediment as the others of the same type. Sediment mass data were estimated from 1975 - present.
WS-2 Cross-sectional sediment volumes were estimated from 1957-1959. Data are missing from 1960-1964. Cross-sectional data are available for 1965. Volume data for 1966, 67, 68, 70, and 71 were provided by Yale by measuring all sediment in containers of known volume. Data are missing for 1969, and for 1972-75. For the period 1976-present volumes were estimated using the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area method. Sediment mass data for the period 1966-1973 were estimated by actual weighing all of the sediment wet, and drying subsamples to obtain a wet/dry weight ratio by Yale University. Mass data are missing for 1974-1975. Mass for 1976-present was estimated by the volume/dry weight method usually with only one subsample. Weir 2 is fitted with a 2-foot 120 deg. sharp crested V-notch with a large basin. But the watershed was clear-felled in 1965, and treated with herbicides for 3 years. Since 1965, the forest has been regrowing.
WS-3 Sediment volume has been estimated by the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area method since 1958. Data are missing for 1960-62 and for 1964. Sediment mass has been estimated by the volume/dry weight method since 1975. Weir 3 is fitted with a 2-foot 120 deg. sharp crested V-notch. The watershed is the untreated hydrologic reference watershed.
WS-4 Sediment volume has been estimated by the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area method since 1965. Sediment mass has been estimated by the volume/dry weight method since 1975. Weir 4 is fitted with a 2-foot 120 deg. sharp crested V-notch. One third of the watershed was harvested in 25m wide strips in 1970, 1972, and 1974, and is now regrowing.
WS-5 Sediment volume was estimated by the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area method during 1965-1983. There are no volume data after 1983. Sediment mass was estimated by the volume/dry weight method during 1975-1983. From 1984-present, mass was estimated by weighing all the sediment wet and drying subsamples to obtain a wet/dry sediment weight factor. In 1976, Bob Bilby removed the debris dams from the lower reaches of the stream just above the weir. WS-5 is fitted with a 1-foot 90 deg. sharp crested V-notch and a modified San Dimas flume. As a result prior to October 1983 most of the sediment carried during high flow events bipassed the basin and was not caught. In October 1983, a sediment trap including a net was built immediately below the notch. The net trapped the following % of the annual totals: 1984 0.2% 1985 7.4% 1986 0.3% 1987 0.1%
WS-6 Sediment volume was estimated by the 3-dimensional cross-sectional area method from 1965-1971. Data are missing for 1969. Sediment mass has been estimated from 1966 - present by weighing all sediment wet, then drying subsamples for wet/dry weight ratios. These weights have been determined by a variety of workers: Tony Dominski, Judy Meyers, Bob Bilby, USFS. Weir 6 like Weir 5 has a 1-foot 90 deg. sharp crested V-notch and a modified San Dimas flume, but no additional sediment trap. Most sediment during high flows bipasses the basin and is not sampled.
WS-7 and 8 Sediment volumes have been estimated by cross-sectional area in Weir 7 since 1967, and in Weir 8 since 1970. There are no missing data. Missing values indicate years when there was not enough sediment to bother cleaning. Therefore the value of 0.075 for WS-8 for 1975 represents 5 years of sediment. 0.010 for WS-7 for 1986 represents 2 years of data. WS-7 and 8 also have flumes so considerable sediment is lost at high flow. Beginning with 1990, Weirs 7 and 8 were cleaned but the sediment was neither measured nor weighed.
WS-9 Weir 9 was built in 1994 and is cleaned annually, but the sediment is neither measured nor weighed.
REFERENCES
  • Martin, C.W., and Hornbeck, J.W. 1993. Erosion, sediment, and turbidity in New England forests. In Proceedings of the Technical Workshop on Sediments, 3-7 February 1992. Terrene Institute, Alexandria, VA.
  • Martin, C.W., and Hornbeck, J.W. 1994. Logging in New England need not cause sedimentation of streams. North. J. Appl. For. 11(1):17-23.
  • Martin, C.W., and Hornbeck, J.W. 1994. Sediment yields from undisturbed and intensively harvested northern hardwood forests. pp. 69-79. Proc. 22nd Annual Hardwood Symposium, Opportunities for the Hardwood Industry to Address Environmental Challenges, High Hampton Inn.
  • Martin, C.W., and Hornbeck, J.W. 1996. Sediment as a nonpoint source pollutant can be controlled during harvesting of northern hardwood forests. pp. 78-85. Proc. Sixth Federal Interagency Sediment Conference, Sedimentation Technologies for Management of Natural Resources in the 21st Century
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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: sdmskgha.txt
Description: Soil sediment yield in weir basin data at Hubbard Brook LTER (in kilograms per hectare)
Notes on Data: The data is physically located at the USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH and was last updated in 2001.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1YEARYear collectedYYYYnnone
2WS-1Watershed 1 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
3WS-2Watershed 2 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
4WS-3Watershed 3 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
5WS-4Watershed 4 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
6WS-5Watershed 5 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
7WS-6Watershed 6 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
8WS-7Watershed 7 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9
9WS-8Watershed 8 sediment YieldkilogramPerHectaren
-99.9


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
WS-1
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-2
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-3
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-4
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-5
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-6
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-7
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time
WS-8
-99.9
Data missing or not taken at this time

Data file: sdvlm3ha.txt
Description: Soil sediment yield in weir basin data at Hubbard Brook LTER. Volume of sediment as cubic meters per hectare.
Notes on Data: The data is physically located at the USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH and was last updated in 2001.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1YEARYear collectedYYYYnnone
2WS-1Watershed 1 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
3WS-2Watershed 2 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
4WS-3Watershed 3 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
5WS-4Watershed 4 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
6WS-5Watershed 5 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
7WS-6Watershed 6 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
8WS-7Watershed 7 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999
9WS-8Watershed 8 sediment yieldcubicMeterPerHectaren
-9.999


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
WS-1
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-2
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-3
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-4
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-5
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-6
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-7
-9.999
Data missing or not taken
WS-8
-9.999
Data missing or not taken