Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Routine Seasonal Phenology Measurements, 1989 - present
TITLE
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Routine Seasonal Phenology Measurements, 1989 - present
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Amey Bailey
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
West Thornton, NH 03285
USA

Phone: (603)-726-8902
ABSTRACT:
Spring and Fall leaf phenology observations have been made at 9 locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest since 1989. Timing and progression of spring leaf out and fall senescence are recorded for 3 dominant tree species, sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech, in treated and untreated watersheds and high and low elevations. Weekly measurements are taken during the active period of the fall or spring season.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
bud, canopies, flowers, foliage, forests, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, leaves, phenology, seasonality, trees, vegetation.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance, primary production.
BEGIN DATE
1989
END DATE
2015
LOCATION
Phenology Collection Site - HQ, Headquarters Building
West bounding coordinate: -71.700975
East bounding coordinate: -71.700975
North bounding coordinate: 43.945733
South bounding coordinate: 43.945733
Elevation
Minimum: 750
Maximum: 750
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 1B.
West bounding coordinate: -71.725558
East bounding coordinate: -71.725558
North bounding coordinate: 43.952022
South bounding coordinate: 43.952022
Elevation
Minimum: 1549
Maximum: 1549
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 4B.
West bounding coordinate: -71.728739
East bounding coordinate: -71.728739
North bounding coordinate: 43.950917
South bounding coordinate: 43.950917
Elevation
Minimum: 1733
Maximum: 1733
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 4T.
West bounding coordinate: -71.731661
East bounding coordinate: -71.731661
North bounding coordinate: 43.958947
South bounding coordinate: 43.958947
Elevation
Minimum: 1996
Maximum: 1996
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 5B.
West bounding coordinate: -71.731831
East bounding coordinate: -71.731831
North bounding coordinate: 43.949128
South bounding coordinate: 43.949128
Elevation
Minimum: 1656
Maximum: 1656
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 5T.
West bounding coordinate: -71.736869
East bounding coordinate: -71.736869
North bounding coordinate: 43.957400
South bounding coordinate: 43.957400
Elevation
Minimum: 2385
Maximum: 2385
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 6T.
West bounding coordinate: -71.742178
East bounding coordinate: -71.742178
North bounding coordinate: 43.955547
South bounding coordinate: 43.955547
Elevation
Minimum: 2518
Maximum: 2518
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 7B.
West bounding coordinate: -71.765647
East bounding coordinate: -71.765647
North bounding coordinate: 43.928928
South bounding coordinate: 43.928928
Elevation
Minimum: 1985
Maximum: 1985
(Unit: meter)
Phenology Collection Site - 7T.
West bounding coordinate: -71.769733
East bounding coordinate: -71.769733
North bounding coordinate: 43.918358
South bounding coordinate: 43.918358
Elevation
Minimum: 2700
Maximum: 2700
(Unit: meter)
SAMPLING DESIGN
Routine observations of phenology at HBEF began in the spring of 1989 at all watershed sites; observations at HQ began in 1993. The objective of the observations is to provide repeatable, quantified phenology data in a way that takes little time. Each location as described above (1B, 6T, etc) is a specific point along the weekly watershed rounds route which is permanently marked. Visible from each location are three dominant or codominant trees of each of the three species: sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech. These individual trees are permanently marked on the side toward the "location" mark. When possible, their crowns are visible from the location itself to minimize the amount of moving around that is necessary.
DATA DESCRIPTION
For each tree at each location, one index value is recorded weekly during the seasonal transition periods in spring and autumn. The index value reflects the stage of leaf-out or scenescense as described in the data table below. The index is averaged for the three trees of one species at a location and this averaged value is recorded as the phenology index for a given date in the phenology database. Observations are not needed in winter or in summer unless insect attack causes premature senescence or leaffall.
REFERENCES
  • Hufkens, K., Richardson, A.D., Friedl, M.A., Keenan, T.F., Sonnentag, O., Bailey, A.S., and O'Keefe, J. 2012. Ecological impacts of a widespread frost event following early spring leaf out. Global Change Biology 18:2365-2377.
  • Richardson, A.D., Bailey, A.S., Denny, E.G., Martin, C.W., and O'Keefe, J. 2006. Phenology of a northern hardwood forest canopy. Global Change Biology 12(7):1174-1188.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: phn.txt
Description: Routine seasonal phenology measurement data at the Hubbard Brook LTER
Notes on Data: NOTES Index values are averaged for the three trees observed on a given day at each location. Therefore data reported here will contain values that are interpolated between the original index value recorded at time of observation. For example, if three sugar maple values are 3.0, 3.0 and 3.5, the reported value will be 3.2, even though that code is not listed below. The data is physically located at the USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH and was last updated in March 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1DATESample dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
2DAYSample day of year, Julian calendarDDDnnone
3SEASONSeason when data were collectednoneynone
4SPECIESSpecies typenoneynone
51BTrees located at the bottom of WS1noney
-9.0
66TTrees located at the top of WS6noney
-9.0
74BTree located at the bottom of WS4, oldest stripsnoney
-9.0
84TTrees located at the top of WS4, oldest stripsnoney
-9.0
95BTrees located at the bottom of WS5noney
-9.0
105TTrees located at the top of WS5noney
-9.0
117BTrees located at the bottom of WS7 (or 8)noney
-9.0
127TTrees located at the top of WS7 (or 8)noney
-9.0
13HQTrees located near the Headquarters buildingnoney
-9.0
14CONETrees located at the Cone Pond sitenoney
-9.0

CODES

Variable: SEASON
Code
Description
SPRING
Spring observation
FALL
Fall observation
Variable: SPECIES
Description:
The species of tree observed
Variable: 1B - 7T, HQ and CONE (columns 5 - 14)
Code
Description
0
SEASON=FALL: All leaves have fallen except remnants on beech, winter condition
0
SEASON=SPRING: No change from winter conditions, unexpanded buds only
0.5
SEASON=FALL: Most leaves fallen
1
SEASON=FALL: No more green in canopy, half of leaves have fallen, leaves still obscure half of sky as seen through crown
1
SEASON=SPRING: Bud swelling noticeable
2
SEASON=FALL: Most leaves yellow, red or colored, few leaves have fallen, leaves still obscure most of the sky as seen through crown
2
SEASON=SPRING: Small leaves or flowers visible, initial stages of leaf expansion, leaves about 1 cm long
3
SEASON=FALL: Many leaves have noticeable reddening or yellowing, much green still present
3
SEASON=SPRING: Leaves 1/2 of final length, leaves obscure half of sky as seen through crowns
3.5
SEASON=SPRING: leaves 3/4 expanded, sky mostly obscured through crown, crowns not yet in summer condition
4
SEASON=FALL: Canopy appears in summer condition only scattered leaves or branches have any color change
4
SEASON=SPRING: Canopy appears in summer condition leaves fully expanded little sky visible through crowns

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
1B
-9.0
Data missing
6T
-9.0
Data missing
4B
-9.0
Data missing
4T
-9.0
Data missing
5B
-9.0
Data missing
5T
-9.0
Data missing
7B
-9.0
Data missing
7T
-9.0
Data missing
HQ
-9.0
Data missing
CONE
-9.0
Data missing