Fine Litterfall Data at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1992 - present
TITLE
Fine Litterfall Data at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1992 - present
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Tim Fahey
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
104A Bruckner Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
OTHERS INVOLVED
Jeffrey W. Hughes
Department of Plant Biology, University of Vermont
63 Carrigan Drive
Burlington, VT 05405
USA
Cynthia Wood
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
Suzanne Wapner
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
ABSTRACT:
Fine litterfall (leaves, twigs, fruits, seeds, etc.) is collected in Watershed 1, Watershed 5, the Throughfall plots and the Bear Brook Watershed reference forest, located to the west of Watershed 6, to quantify carbon and nutrient flux associated with this important pathway. In addition, measurements of area per leaf are combined with counts of leaves for each tree species to quantify leaf area index of the forest. These measurements have facilitated quantification of ice storm effects and species declines (paper birch, sugar maple).
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
elevation, foliage, forests, HBEF Watershed 1, HBEF Watershed 5, HBEF Bear Brook Watershed, HBEF Throughfall Plots, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, leaves, leaf area, litterfall, seeds, trees, vegetation, watersheds.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
primary production.
BEGIN DATE
1992
END DATE
2014
LOCATION
Watershed 1 sites
West bounding coordinate: -71.730866
East bounding coordinate: -71.725832
North bounding coordinate: 43.959356
South bounding coordinate: 43.952121
Elevation
Minimum: 488
Maximum: 747
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 5 sites
West bounding coordinate: -71.739375
East bounding coordinate: -71.731253
North bounding coordinate: 43.957167
South bounding coordinate: 43.948942
Elevation
Minimum: 488
Maximum: 762
(Unit: meter)
Bear Brook sites
West bounding coordinate: -71.743462
East bounding coordinate: -71.735649
North bounding coordinate: 43.957001
South bounding coordinate: 43.949928
Elevation
Minimum: 525
Maximum: 830
(Unit: meter)
Throughfall sites
West bounding coordinate: -71.824950
East bounding coordinate: -71.674321
North bounding coordinate: 43.957100
South bounding coordinate: 43.939945
Elevation
Minimum: 520
Maximum: 790
(Unit: meter)
LOCATION DESCRIPTIONS
Fine Litterfall is collected at 4 different locations.
Watershed 1 Sites:
These sites are located along the W1 trail at the elevations provided below. There are ten collectors per site arranged along two transects, with five 0.097 m2 collectors on each transect. Collections on W1 began in 1997.
Low, hardwood – elevation 520 m
Mid, hardwood – elevation 600 m
Upper, hardwood – elevation 710 m
High, spruce/fir – elevation 740 m
Watershed 5 Sites:
Location and dimensions of collectors (leaf collection baskets) in W5 were changed after May 1993. Before 1993 collectors (43 x 43 cm) were located in the twenty permanent vegetation plots. A map of these plots is filed in Durham, NH with the data manager. After May 1993 new sites and collectors (0.097 m2) were initiated. Twenty traps are positioned randomly within four elevation zones, distributed with four collectors in each of five grid cells in W5. Grid cell numbers refer to the W5 grid; the watershed is gridded into 25 x 25 m cells, the corners of which are marked with orange poles, the pole in the northwest corner bearing the grid cell number. Contact the data manager for the grid cell map of W5.
Low, hardwood – elevation 530 m
Mid, hardwood – elevation 610 m
Upper, hardwood – elevation 690 m
High, hardwood – elevation 750 m
Bear Brook Sites:
West of W6: 0.097 m2 collectors are randomly situated along three 100 m long transects (325 degrees) which are approximately 25 m apart. Originally 20 collectors per elevation were set out; there are currently twelve per elevation at all but the high elevation where fifteen remain.
Low, hardwood - southwest of W6 weir, west of tower platform - elevation 525 m
Mid, hardwood - west of Throughfall collector sites - elevation 585 m
Upper, hardwood - west of tower site and seep - elevation 725 m
High, hardwood - west of rain gauge 9 - elevation 830 m
Throughfall Sites:
These sites are located along the W6 trail except for the lower site which is located within the "wedge" area east of W5: ten collections per elevation (two 0.097 m2 collectors randomly situated along five transects):
Low, hardwood - elevation 520 m
Mid, hardwood - elevation 580 m
Upper, hardwood - elevation 730 m
High, spruce/fir - elevation 790 m
DATA DESCRIPTION
Fine litterfall (foliage, buds, seeds, fruits, bark and twigs/branches <2 cm diameter) is collected three times each year: soon after snowmelt (May), late summer before leaf fall (September), and late autumn after leaf fall (November). Note: Coarse litterfall is collected from cleared plots at a subset of the sites (see Hubbard Brook Coarse Litterfall Data). Spring and Summer collections are dried and weighed, Fall collections are sorted by species and tissue. Tree leaves are counted for each trap and seeds (except birch) are counted. A subsample of leaves of each species is taken for measurement of area per leaf. Leaf area index is estimated for each trap as the product of average area per leaf and leaf number. The whole sample is dried and weighed. All data except LAI are expressed per trap (0.097 m2) in the data set. Values found under species headings are leaf counts.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The location of the 16 plots (four each in W1, W5, Bear Brook (west of W6), and Throughfall collection sites) have been chosen to stratify the sampling by elevation zones. These sites are co-located with sampling for soil CO2 flux, fine root biomass, throughfall, soil solutions, microbial biomass and microarthropods. Within sites, collectors are positioned randomly.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: fine_litter.txt
Description: Fine litter data in four watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
Notes on Data: 1. The collection for Fall 1992 was pooled into one sample for each site and represents the average per litter trap (for August - November 1992). 2. We realized that some leaf litter occasionally has blown into some collectors. Collectors were raised 1 m above ground surface in August 2001 to minimize this problem. 3. In November 1994 the samples were pooled for dry weight determination. The average dry weight for the site is entered for each trap. 4. In August 1998 a severe hailstorm removed substantial foliage (as well as twigs) in all locations. Leaves were counted in August 1998 collections only for BB High, BB Upper, TF High, TF Upper. LAI estimates for these sites include this correction. For other sites no correction for LAI lost to the hailstorm is included, but the extra litterfall mass appears in the August 1998 collection. 5. Collections on W1 began in 1997. Data hard copies are located at the USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH and were last updated in 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1TRTMTIndicates if collection site received Calcium additionsnoneynone
2COMPForest species compositionnoneynone
3SITELocation where litterfall was collectednoneynone
4ELEVElevationnoneynone
5YEARAutumn to which all litterfall is attributed. See MethodsYYYYnnone
6DATESample collection month of seasonal sample collectionsYYYY-MMnnone
7CELLGrid cell number where sample was collected (W1 and W5 only)noney
-9999
8TAGTag numbernoney
pooled
9DRY_MASSOven dry weight of samplegramn
-9999.99
10M_COUNTSugar maple leaf countnumbern
-9999
11M_MASSOven dry weight of Sugar Maplegramn
-9999.99
12M_AREALong-term average Sugar maple leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
13f_COUNTRed maple leaf countnumbern
-9999
14f_AREALong-term average Red maple leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
15t_COUNTStriped maple leaf countnumbern
-9999
16t_AREALong-term average Striped maple leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
17Q_COUNTAsh leaf countnumbern
-9999
18Q_AREALong-term average Ash leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
19B_COUNTBeech leaf countnumbern
-9999
20B_MASSOven dry weight of Beechgramn
-9999.99
21B_AREALong-term average Beech leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
22W_COUNTWhite birch leaf countnumbern
-9999
23W_AREALong-term average White birch leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
24Y_COUNTYellow birch leaf countnumbern
-9999
25Y_MASSOven dry weight of Yellow Birchgramn
-9999.99
26Y_AREALong-term average Yellow birch leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
27P_COUNTPin cherry leaf countnumbern
-9999
28P_AREALong-term average Pin cherry leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
29a_COUNTAspen leaf countnumbern
-9999
30a_AREALong-term average Aspen leaf area (per leaf)centimeterSquaredn
-9999.9
31LAILeaf Area IndexmeterSquaredPerMeterSquaredn
-9999.99
32COMMENTCommentsnoneynone

CODES

Variable: TRTMT
Code
Description
Ca
Calcium addition (W1 only)
noCa
No calcium addition
Variable: COMP
Code
Description
HW
Mixed hardwood
SF
Spruce-Fir
Variable: SITE
Code
Description
BB
Bear Brook Watershed site
TF
Throughfall site
W1
Watershed 1 sites
W5
Watershed 5 site
Variable: ELEV
Code
Description
Low
Low elevation
Mid
Mid elevation
Upper
Upper elevation
High
High elevation
Variable: CELL
Description:
An integer number representing an existent grid cell for W1 and W5 locations
Variable: TAG
Description:
An integer representing an existent tag number
Variable: COMMENT
Description:
Comments (if none, no value present here) on the current datum

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
CELL
-9999
not applicable because there is not a grid at that location
TAG
pooled
Sample pooled for analysis; individual trap values not recorded
DRY_MASS
-9999.99
data missing or not collected
M_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
M_MASS
-9999.99
data missing or not collected
M_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
f_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
f_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
t_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
t_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
Q_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
Q_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
B_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
B_MASS
-9999.99
data missing or not collected
B_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
W_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
W_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
Y_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
Y_MASS
-9999.99
data missing or not collected
Y_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
P_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
P_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
a_COUNT
-9999
data missing or not collected
a_AREA
-9999.9
data missing or not collected
LAI
-9999.99
data missing or not collected