Floristic Diversity of the Experimental Watersheds, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
TITLE
Floristic Diversity of the Experimental Watersheds, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Leslie M. Adams (formerly Teeling and Teeling-Adams)
Adjunct Associate Professor of Natural Sciences and Environmental Management
University of Maryland, University College
Adelphi, MD 20783
USA
Email: leslie.adams@comcast.net
OTHERS INVOLVED
Garret E. Crow
Email: gec@christa.unh.edu
Gary L. Wade
Email: drgarylwade@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:
While tree species succession and response to disturbance has been extensively researched, little similar effort has focused on understory herbaceous communities. This study conducted the first complete botanical inventories, with ranked abundance estimates, of the experimental watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), compared their relative floristic characters, and provided baseline data for long-term diversity monitoring at HBEF. Five of these watersheds were composed of mature (90 - 100 year old) secondary-growth forest, while two were young (16 and 26 year old) tertiary-growth forests recovering from conventional clear-cutting treatments. Floristic similarities were analyzed using ANCOVA, dominance-diversity curves, and similarity matrices.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
biodiversity, diversity, disturbance, flora, floristic inventory, forest management, HBEF Watersheds, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, regeneration, succession, taxonomy, temperate deciduous forest, tree, tree harvesting, understory, vegetation, watershed, White Mountain National Forest.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
populations.
BEGIN DATE
1995-08-07
END DATE
1998-08-12
LOCATION
HBEF watershed 1 (WS1)
West bounding coordinate: -71.730866
East bounding coordinate: -71.725832
North bounding coordinate: 43.959356
South bounding coordinate: 43.952121
HBEF watershed 2 (WS2)
West bounding coordinate: -71.728229
East bounding coordinate: -71.722968
North bounding coordinate: 43.960292
South bounding coordinate: 43.953434
HBEF watershed 3 (WS3)
West bounding coordinate: -71.725029
East bounding coordinate: -71.716533
North bounding coordinate: 43.962196
South bounding coordinate: 43.954650
HBEF watershed 4 (WS4)
West bounding coordinate: -71.736711
East bounding coordinate: -71.725126
North bounding coordinate: 43.958440
South bounding coordinate: 43.949834
HBEF watershed 5 (WS5)
West bounding coordinate: -71.739375
East bounding coordinate: -71.731253
North bounding coordinate: 43.957167
South bounding coordinate: 43.948942
HBEF watershed 6 (WS6)
West bounding coordinate: -71.742990
East bounding coordinate: -71.735175
North bounding coordinate: 43.957070
South bounding coordinate: 43.949996
HBEF watershed 7 (WS7)
West bounding coordinate: -71.772989
East bounding coordinate: -71.758344
North bounding coordinate: 43.927563
South bounding coordinate: 43.916086
HBEF watershed 8 (WS8)
West bounding coordinate: -71.762073
East bounding coordinate: -71.752413
North bounding coordinate: 43.929508
South bounding coordinate: 43.918009
HBEF watershed 9 (WS9)
West bounding coordinate: -71.758029
East bounding coordinate: -71.742267
North bounding coordinate: 43.925933
South bounding coordinate: 43.916033
HBEF watershed 101 (WS101)
West bounding coordinate: -71.741722
East bounding coordinate: -71.735756
North bounding coordinate: 43.940002
South bounding coordinate: 43.935921
SAMPLING DESIGN
Reconnaissance field surveys were used to inventory the flora of each watershed according to three vegetation classes: hardwood forest, mixed hardwood-spruce-fir forest, and open areas. Separate inventories were taken for each of these three classes within each of the watersheds.
HARDWOOD. The hardwood vegetation class is characterized by species typical of the northern hardwood forest. In the HBEF, these tree species include Fagus grandifolia, Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis, with less abundant populations of Fraxinus americana, Acer pensylvanicum, Acer rubrum and Acer spicatum.
MIXED. The mixed hardwood-spruce-fir forest category represented both areas of pure spruce-fir type vegetation, and the boundary where the spruce-fir and northern hardwood forest types intergraded. This class was identified by a combined presence of 40% or more of Picea rubens and Abies balsamea in the canopy.
OPEN. The open vegetation class constitutes individual areas of over 15 mē which lacked an overhead canopy, regardless of elevation. Tree species are then limited to stump shoots and seedlings of taxa defining either of the previous two classes. This vegetation class was included in the study primarily to account for the 0.3 ha rain gauge clearings the occur throughout the experimental watersheds, as well as open areas along the foot trails, and treats these man-made and maintained clearings as microhabitats.
The first few weeks of spring (early May) were spent mapping microhabitats and dividing the vegetation classes into segments that could be readily traversed in a field day. These segments were then visited weekly from mid-May through early September. Species lists were compiled and voucher specimens were collected, unless doing so would have threatened the existing population. Collections were deposited in the Hodgdon Herbarium at the University of New Hampshire, and in numerous cases, duplicates were placed in the Hubbard Brook Collection as well.
CALCULATIONS
Estimates of species abundance within each segment were made based upon the rank abundance approach suggested by Palmer et al. (1995). This system was used to rank the frequency of occurrence of individuals of a species in relation to total flora. A "dominant" species was defined as one constituting roughly 20% or more of the individuals present.
REFERENCES
  • Flora North America. 1993. Flora of North America: North of Mexico; Volume 2: Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press, Portland OR
  • Palmer, M.W., Wade, G.L., and Neal, P. 1995. Standard for the writing of floras. Biosicence 45:339-345.
  • Teeling, L.M. 1998. The Floristic Diversity of the Experimental Watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. M.S., Univ. of New Hampshire.
  • Teeling, L.M., Crow, G.E., and Wade, G.L. 2001. Floristic Diversity of the Experimental Watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Rhodora 915:263-292.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: flora.txt
Description: Floristic diversity data at Hubbard Brook lter
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1SPECIESSpecies namenoneynone
2FOREST_TYPEType of forestnoneynone
3WS1Watershed 1noneynone
4WS2Watershed 2noneynone
5WS3Watershed 3noneynone
6WS4Watershed 4noneynone
7WS5Watershed 5noneynone
8WS6Watershed 6noneynone
9WS7Watershed 7noneynone
10WS8Watershed 8noneynone
11WS9Watershed 9noneynone
12WS101Watershed 101noneynone

CODES

Variable: SPECIES
Description:
Vascular plant species. Nomenclature conforms to Kartesz (1994) except for ferns which follow Flora of North America (1993).
Variable: FOREST_TYPE
Code
Description
HARDWOOD
This vegetation class is representative of northern hardwood forest and is characterized by a stand with less than 40% coniferous species in the tree community. See Sampling Design for details.
MIXED
This vegetation class is representative of the ecotone between northern hardwood and mountain spruce-fir forests, and is characterized by an increase in Picea rupens and Abies balsamea dominance. See Sampling Design for details.
OPEN
This class constitutes individual areas of over 15 mē which lacked an overhead forest canopy. See Sampling Design for details.
Variable: WS1 - WS101, RANKED ABUNDANCE
Code
Description
5
Abundant: Dominant or codominant in one or more common habitats.
4
Frequent: Easily seen or found in one or more common habitats, but not dominant.
3
Occasional: Widely scattered, but not difficult to find.
2
Infrequent: Difficult to find, few individuals or colonies, but found in several locations.
1
Rare: Very difficult to find and limited to one or very few locations or uncommon habitats.
0
Absent: Not found, but found in a previous survey from the same or similar sites, or was otherwise suspected to occur.