Forest Inventory of a Calcium Amended Northern Hardwood Forest: Watershed 1, 1996, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
TITLE
Forest Inventory of a Calcium Amended Northern Hardwood Forest: Watershed 1, 1996, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Charles Driscoll
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA
Scott Bailey
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
Campton, NH 03223
USA
Joel Blum
Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
USA
Don Buso
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
Campton, NH 03223
USA
Chris Eagar
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station
Durham, NH 03824
USA
Tim Fahey
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
Melany Fisk
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056
USA
Peter Groffman
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA
Chris Johnson
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA
Gene Likens
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA
Steven Hamburg
Environmental Defense Fund
18 Tremont Street, Suite 850
Boston, MA 02108
USA
Thomas G. Siccama
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
ABSTRACT:
In order to evaluate the role of Ca supply in regulating the structure and function of base-poor forest and aquatic ecosystems, the Ca content of soil was increased through the application of wollastonite (CaSiO3) in October 1999. Forest inventory surveys were initiated in 1996 and repeated at 5 year intervals. This data set includes pre-treatment inventory measurements collected in 1996. The data consists of a total inventory of all trees >=10 cm diameter-at-breast-height (dbh) on the whole of the watershed (11.8 ha), as measured in each of the 200 25 m x 25 m plots. Trees >=2 to <=10 cm dbh were subsampled using a 3 meter wide strip along one edge of each 25 m x 25 m plot. Tree tags were added in 2006 on all trees >=10 cm dbh; tracking of individual trees is not possible prior to that collection year.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
biomass, calcium, diameter breast height, forests, HBEF Watershed 1, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, inventory, trees, vegetation, watersheds.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance, inorganic nutrients, primary production.
BEGIN DATE
1996
END DATE
1996
LOCATION
Watershed 1 is an 11.8 ha watershed extending from the weir at 488 m to the ridge at 747 m.
West bounding coordinate: -71.730866
East bounding coordinate: -71.725832
North bounding coordinate: 43.959356
South bounding coordinate: 43.952121
Elevation
Minimum: 488
Maximum: 747
(Unit: meter)
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
In order to evaluate the role of Ca supply in regulating the structure and function of base-poor forest and aquatic ecosystems, the Ca content of soil was increased through the application of wollastonite (CaSiO3) in October 1999. A link to more information about the study can be found in ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
SAMPLING BACKGROUND
Surveys were initiated in 1996 and repeated at 5 year intervals. The data in this dataset were collected in the summer of 1996. The hydrology has been monitored since 1956, and stream water chemistry has been monitored since 1963. The watershed is forested by typical northern hardwood species (sugar maple, beech and yellow birch) on the lower 90 % of its area, and by a montane boreal transition forest of red spruce, balsam fir and white birch on the highest 10%. Surveying techniques were used in 1996 to install a grid system of 200 grid cells, each 25 x 25 m square (slope corrected). These grid units serve as the plot system. See the following webpages for more information:
http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/maps/w1_grid_map.htm
http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/w1_grid_elevations.htm.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The inventory consists of a total inventory of all trees >=10 cm dbh on the whole of the watershed (11.8 ha), as measured in each of the 200 25 m x 25 m plots. Trees >=2 to <=10 cm dbh were subsampled using a 3 meter wide strip along one edge of each 25 m x 25 m plot.
DATA DESCRIPTION
The data consist of the diameters (dbh) of all the trees >=10 cm dbh, live and dead, in the whole of the watershed (7960 individual stems). Dead trees were recorded as standing dead trees (trees dead but retaining most of their fine branches) and as snags (trees broken off above dbh or with only their major large branches still intact). Live trees were noted "sick" if they had very sparse foliage or yellowing foliage in the mid summer sampling. A subsample of trees >=2 cm dbh and <=10 cm dbh were measured at the same time (2494 individual stems). All stems that met the size criteria were measured individually, and in some years it was noted whether a stem was part of a group of stems from the same tree (i.e. multiple stems that split from a single trunk below breast height). For W1, whether or not a stem was part of a group was recorded in all survey years.
CALCULATIONS
Aboveground and belowground biomass was estimated for each stem in the inventory and is included in the data. Estimates were based on species-specific allometric equations developed at Hubbard Brook. Phytosociology or biomass summaries can be obtained by using our interactive calculators. Phytosociology summaries include basal area, density and frequency of each species for the watershed as a whole or for smaller units as chosen by the user. Diameter distributions for a specific species can also be selected. Biomass summaries include biomass estimates by plant part for each species for the watershed as a whole or for smaller units as chosen by the user. Options to estimate productivity and total nutrient pools in the vegetation are also available. Links to the tools described here are located in the Additional Resources section of this document.
NOTES
It is not possible to compare these data between sampling years on a plot by plot basis until 2006 when tree tags were added. Without tags, trees on the lines between plots can "drift" between plots between years depending on the observers line of sight or the observers decision as to whether the center of the base of a tree is in one plot or the adjoining plot. Watershed 1 contains two rain gauge clearings within its boundaries. This reduces the forested area of the watershed and complicates calculation of plot area. For those plots that lie wholly or partially within a clearing, an adjustment is made in the calculation of plot area to include only the forested portion of the plot. Plot 144 is the only plot that lies entirely within a clearing and contains no trees. For extensive notes about the details of these surveys and subsequent calculations, see the notes indicated at the bottom of the interactive calculation programs, links below.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
REFERENCES
  • Bormann, F.H., Siccama, T.G., Likens, G.E., and Whittaker, R.H. 1970. Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: composition and dynamics of the tree stratum. Ecol. Monogr. 40(4):373-388.
  • Whittaker, R.H., Bormann, F.H., Likens, G.E., and Siccama, T.G. 1974. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: forest biomass and production. Ecol. Monogr. 44(2):233-254.
  • Whittaker, R.H., Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Eaton, J.S., and Siccama, T.G. 1979. Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: forest nutrient cycling and element behavior. Ecology 60(1):203-220.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: w1_1996veg.txt
Description: Tree inventory data for Watershed 1, 1996 pre-treatment collection, at the Hubbard Brook LTER.
Notes on Data: The data is physically located at the Driscoll Lab in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1Yearsample yearYYYYnnone
2Watershedwatershed numbernoneynone
3Plotplot numbernoneynone
4Zonevegetation zonenoneynone
5Speciesspecies acronymnoneynone
6SppNumspecies numbernoneynone
7Seqsequence number (unique number for each tree; multiple stems of same tree have same sequence)noneynone
8TagTag number is not relevant for W1 until 2006 when trees were taggednoney
0
9Dbhdiameter at breast height, in cmcentimeternnone
10Vigorvigor codenoneynone
11AbvBmssaboveground biomass in kilograms estimated for each stemkilogramnnone
12BlwBmssbelowground biomass in kilograms estimated for each stemkilogramnnone
13TwotoTenpresence (1) or absence (0) of measured trees in the 2 - 10 cm diameter class for that plot (in some years, not all plots were measured)noneynone
1410Areaplot area in square meters for plot on which trees >10 cm dbh were measuredmeterSquaredn
0
15TwotoTenAreaplot area in square meters for plot on which trees 2-10 cm dbh were measuredmeterSquaredn
0

CODES

Variable: Watershed
Code
Description
1
the number of the watershed is 1 throughout this dataset
Variable: Plot
Description:
An integer representing the plot
Variable: Zone
Code
Description
1
birch and fern glade on the west side of the ridge top - 8 plots
2
spruce/fir flat area on the east side of the ridge top - 12 plots
3
high hardwoods just below the ridgetop - 26 plots
4
spruce/fir on cliffs and ledges in the middle of the high hardwoods - 11 plots
5
mid elevation hardwoods with deeper soil - 48 plots
6
poorly-formed hardwoods on ledges on the east side of the central watershed - 41 plots
7
low elevation hardwoods - 54 plots
Variable: Species, SppNum
SppNum
Species Code
Species/SppNum description
1
ACSA
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
2
FAGR
American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
3
BEAL
Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
4
FRAM
White ash (Fraxinus americana)
5
ACSP
Mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
6
ACPE
Striped maple or moose wood (Acer pensylvanicum)
7
PRPE
Pin or fire cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
8
PRVI
Choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)
9
ABBA
Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
10
PIRU
Red spruce (Picea rubens)
11
BEPA
White or paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
12
SOAM
Mountain ash (Sorbus americana)
13
ACRU
Red maple (Acer rubrum)
14
TSCA
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
15
UNKN
unknown, used for unidentifiable rotten snags
16
POTR
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
17
PRSE
Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
18
AMSP
Shadbush (Amelanchier sp.)
19
POGR
Big-tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)
20
SASP
Willow (Salix sp.)
21
COAL
Alternate-leaved dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)
22
PRSP
Cherry (unspecified) (Prunus sp.)
Variable: SppNum
Code
Description
1
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
2
American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
3
Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
4
White ash (Fraxinus americana)
5
Mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
6
Striped maple or moose wood (Acer pensylvanicum)
7
Pin or fire cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
8
Choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)
9
Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
10
Red spruce (Picea rubens)
11
White or paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
12
Mountain ash (Sorbus americana)
13
Red maple (Acer rubrum)
14
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
15
unknown, used for unidentifiable rotten snags
16
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
17
Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
18
Shadbush (Amelanchier sp.)
19
Big-tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)
20
Willow (Salix sp.)
21
Alternate-leaved dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)
22
Cherry (unspecified) (Prunus sp.)
Variable: Seq
Description:
A positive integer representing the sequence number for the current sample
Variable: Tag
Description:
A positive integer tag identifier
Variable: Vigor
Code
Description
0
healthy
1
diseased beech (with beech bark disease)
2
diseased beech with crown in decline
3
sick (trees with crown in decline)
4
standing dead tree
5
standing dead snag (no limbs left)
Variable: TwotoTen
Code
Description
1
Presence
0
Absence

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
Tag
0
Tag number is not relevant for W1 until 2006
10Area
0
Area does not apply to the current sample
TwotoTenArea
0
Area does not apply to the current sample