Forest Inventory of a Whole Tree Harvest: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Watershed 5, 1990, 7 years post-harvest
TITLE
Forest Inventory of a Whole Tree Harvest: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Watershed 5, 1990, 7 years post-harvest
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
John J. Battles
University of California, Berkeley
Environmental Science, Policy, and Management
137 Mulford Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-3114
USA

Phone: (510) 643-0684
Tim Fahey
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
104A Bruckner Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
Natalie Cleavitt
Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University
104A Bruckner Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
USA
OTHERS INVOLVED
Thomas G. Siccama
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
Chris Johnson
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA
Steven Hamburg
Environmental Defense Fund
18 Tremont Street, Suite 850
Boston, MA 02108
USA
Charley Driscoll
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA
Gene Likens
Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA
ABSTRACT:
A whole-tree harvest was conducted during the dormant season of 1983-1984 in order assess ecosystem response to whole-tree logging operations. Pre-harvest forest inventory surveys were conducted in 1982 on the whole of the watershed. Post-harvest surveys were conducted in 1990, 1994 and every 5 years thereafter. This dataset was collected in summer of 1990. Survey methods differed between years due to the variability encountered in the aggrading forest.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
aggrading forest, biomass, diameter breast height, forests, HBEF Watershed 5, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, inventory, trees, vegetation, watersheds, whole tree harvest.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
primary production, disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
1990
END DATE
1990
LOCATION
Watershed 5 is a 22.5-ha watershed extending from an elevation of 503-m at the weir to 755-m at the highest point on the ridge.
West bounding coordinate: -71.739375
East bounding coordinate: -71.731253
North bounding coordinate: 43.957167
South bounding coordinate: 43.948942
Elevation
Minimum: 503
Maximum: 755
(Unit: meter)
SAMPLING BACKGROUND
The watershed was surveyed in 1982 and clearcut in 1983. Post-cut tree surveys were initiated in 1990 and repeated in 1994 and 1999. These data were collected in the summer of 1990. The hydrology has been monitored since 1962 and stream water chemistry monitored since 1963. In 1982, before the clearcut, the watershed was forested by typical northern hardwood species (sugar maple, beech and yellow birch) on the lower 85 % of its area and by a montane boreal transition forest of red spruce, balsam fir and white birch on the highest 15%. Surveying techniques were used in 1982 to install a grid system of 360 grid units, each 25 x 25-m square. These grid units serve as the plot system. See the following webpages for more information:
Overview of the Harvest Operation: http://www.hubbardbrook.org/research/longterm/whole_tree/w5_overview/index.html
Map of Watershed 5 Vegetation Zones: http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/maps/w5_veg_map.htm
Map of Watershed 5 Grid System: http://www.hubbardbrook.org/watersheds/w5_grid_elevations.htm.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The inventory consists of all trees >=1.5-cm dbh within 199 circular plots (1.37-m radius) on the lower two-thirds of the watershed ("low" and "mid" elevations). Plots were not located within specific grid units, as is generally the case, but along temporary transects. There were 17 plots sampled with no trees large enough to meet the survey criteria.
DATA DESCRIPTION
The data consist of the diameters (dbh) of all trees >1.5-cm dbh, live and dead, in 199 circular plots (1.37-m radius) on the lower two-thirds of the watershed. (1361 individual stems). Dead trees were recorded as standing dead trees (trees dead but retaining most of their fine branches) and as snags (trees broken off above dbh or with only their major large branches still intact). Live trees were noted "sick" if they had very sparse foliage or yellowing foliage in the mid summer sampling. All stems that met the size criteria were measured individually, and in some years it was noted whether a stem was part of a group of stems from the same tree (i.e. multiple stems that split from a single trunk below breast height). For W5, whether or not a stem was part of a group was recorded in all post-harvest survey years.
CALCULATIONS
Aboveground and belowground biomass was estimated for each stem in the inventory and is included in the data. Estimates were based on species-specific allometric equations developed at Hubbard Brook. See "How do we quantify a forest?" for details. Phytosociology or biomass summaries can be obtained by using our interactive calculators. Phytosociology summaries include basal area, density and frequency of each species for the watershed as a whole or for smaller units as chosen by the user. Diameter distributions for a specific species can also be selected. Biomass summaries include biomass estimates by plant part for each species for the watershed as a whole or for smaller units as chosen by the user. Options to estimate productivity and total nutrient pools in the vegetation are also available. For extensive details about how these calculations are made, see the notes indicated at the bottom of the calculator pages.
NOTES
Extensive notes about the details of these surveys and subsequent calculations are located here: http://hubbardbrook.org/w6_tour/biomass-stop/phytow5-pre-notes.htm
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Quantifying the forest biomass calculator, pre-harvest: http://hubbardbrook.org/w6_tour/biomass-stop/biomassw5-pre.htm
Phytosociology calculator, pre-harvest: http://hubbardbrook.org/w6_tour/biomass-stop/phytow5-pre.htm
Phytosociology calculator, post-harvest: http://www.hubbardbrook.org/w6_tour/biomass-stop/phytow5-post.htm
REFERENCES
  • Fahey, T.J. 1985. Root decomposition following harvest of a northern hardwoods forest in New Hampshire. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 66(2):171.
  • Hughes, J.W., and Fahey, T.J. 1985. Regeneration strategies following whole-tree harvest of a northern hardwood forest. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 66(2):198.
  • Hughes, J.W. 1986. Strategies of population persistence and resource exploitation of a forest herb: Aster acuminatus, p. 184. IV Internat. Congress of Ecology, 71st Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, State University of New York, Syracuse University.
  • Huntington, T.G., Ryan, D.F., and Hamburg, S.P. 1988. Estimating soil nitrogen and carbon pools in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:1162-1167.
  • Huntington, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Johnson, A.H., Siccama, T.G., and Ryan, D.F. 1989. Carbon, organic matter and bulk density relationships in a forested spodosol. Soil Science 148(5):380-386.
  • Huntington, T.G., and Ryan, D.F. 1990. Whole-tree harvesting effects on soil nitrogen and carbon. Forest Ecology and Management 31:193-204.
  • Johnson, C.E., Johnson, A.H., Huntington, T.G., and Siccama, T.G. 1991. Whole-tree clear-cutting effects on soil horizons and organic-matter pools. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:497-502.
  • Johnson, C.E., Johnson, A.H., and Siccama, T.G. 1991. Whole-tree clear-cutting effects on exchangeable cations and soil acidity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:502-508.
  • Likens, G.E., Driscoll, C.T., Buso, D.C., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Ryan, D.F., Lovett, G.M., Fahey, T.J., and Reiners, W.A. 1994. The biogeochemistry of potassium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 25:61-125.
  • Likens, G.E., Driscoll, C.T., Buso, D.C., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Lovett, G.M., Fahey, T.J., Reiners, W.A., Ryan, D.F., Martin, C.W., and Bailey, S.W. 1998. The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41(2):89-173.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: w5_1990veg.txt
Description: Tree inventory data for Watershed 5 at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 1990 Collection.
Notes on Data: The data is physically located at the Battles Laboratory, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley and was last updated in July 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1Plotplot numbernoneynone
2Zonevegetation zonenoneynone
3Speciesspecies acronymnoneynone
4SppNumspecies numbernoneynone
5Seqsequence number (unique number for each tree; multiple stems of same tree have same sequence)noneynone
6Tagtag number (not relevant for W5 at this time)noney
0
7Dbhdiameter at breast height, in cmcentimeternnone
8Vigorvigor codenoneynone
9AbvBmssaboveground biomass in kilograms estimated for each stemkilogramn
-999.99
10BlwBmssbelowground biomass in kilograms estimated for each stemkilogramn
-999.99
11Areaplot area in square meters for plot on which trees >=1.5 cm dbh were measuredmeterSquarednnone

CODES

Variable: Plot
Description:
An integer representing the plot
Variable: Zone
Code
Description
0
not applicable for W5 1990 since plots cannot be assigned to grid units
Variable: Species, SppNum
SppNum
Species Code
Species/SppNum description
1
ACSA
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
2
FAGR
American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
3
BEAL
Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
4
FRAM
White ash (Fraxinus americana)
5
ACSP
Mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
6
ACPE
Striped maple or moose wood (Acer pensylvanicum)
7
PRPE
Pin or fire cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
8
PRVI
Choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)
9
ABBA
Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
10
PIRU
Red spruce (Picea rubens)
11
BEPA
White or paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
12
SOAM
Mountain ash (Sorbus americana)
13
ACRU
Red maple (Acer rubrum)
14
TSCA
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
15
UNKN
unknown, used for unidentifiable rotten snags
16
POTR
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
17
PRSE
Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
18
AMSP
Shadbush (Amelanchier sp.)
19
POGR
Big-tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)
20
SASP
Willow (Salix sp.)
21
COAL
Alternate-leaved dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)
22
PRSP
Cherry (unspecified) (Prunus sp.)
23
NONE
"NONE" appears in this column for those lines that represent a plot with no trees large enough to meet the survey criteria.
Variable: SppNum
Code
Description
1
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
2
American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
3
Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
4
White ash (Fraxinus americana)
5
Mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
6
Striped maple or moose wood (Acer pensylvanicum)
7
Pin or fire cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
8
Choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)
9
Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
10
Red spruce (Picea rubens)
11
White or paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
12
Mountain ash (Sorbus americana)
13
Red maple (Acer rubrum)
14
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
15
unknown, used for unidentifiable rotten snags
16
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
17
Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
18
Shadbush (Amelanchier sp.)
19
Big-tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)
20
Willow (Salix sp.)
21
Alternate-leaved dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)
22
Cherry (unspecified) (Prunus sp.)
-
"-"appears in this column for those lines that represent a plot with no trees large enough to meet the survey criteria.
Variable: Seq
Description:
A positive integer representing the sequence number for the current sample
Variable: Tag
Description:
A positive integer tag identifier
Variable: Vigor
Code
Description
0
healthy
1
diseased beech (with beech bark disease)
2
diseased beech with crown in decline
3
sick (trees with crown in decline)
4
standing dead tree
5
standing dead snag (no limbs left)

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
Tag
0
Tag number is not relevant for W5 at this time
AbvBmss
-999.99
Data missing or not relevant to ws5 at this time
BlwBmss
-999.99
Data missing or not relevant to ws5 at this time