Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Snow Depth Measurements, 1955 - present
TITLE
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US Forest Service): Snow Depth Measurements, 1955 - present
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
John Campbell
USDA Forest Service
271 Mast Rd.
Durham, NH 03824
USA

Phone: (603)-868-7643
OTHERS INVOLVED
Amey Bailey
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
ABSTRACT:
Snow measurements have been collected approximately weekly during the winter season using transects adjacent to the established network of standard rain gages from 1956 to the present. Maximum snow depth, water content and snow cover duration data are recorded at points along a transect known as a “snow course”, which includes 10 points spaced at 2-m intervals within a designated 0.25 ha area. Data from one course are averaged for each collection date and snow water content is scaled up to a whole watershed value.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
forests, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, snow, snow course, snow depth, watersheds.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
1955-12-05
END DATE
2015-04-27
LOCATION
Rain gage 1
West bounding coordinate: -71.725403
East bounding coordinate: -71.725403
North bounding coordinate: 43.952332
South bounding coordinate: 43.952332
Elevation
Minimum: 1600
Maximum: 1600
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 2
West bounding coordinate: -71.727371
East bounding coordinate: -71.727371
North bounding coordinate: 43.954929
South bounding coordinate: 43.954929
Elevation
Minimum: 1840
Maximum: 1840
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 3
West bounding coordinate: -71.728661
East bounding coordinate: -71.728661
North bounding coordinate: 43.958450
South bounding coordinate: 43.958450
Elevation
Minimum: 2350
Maximum: 2350
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 4
West bounding coordinate: -71.720886
East bounding coordinate: -71.720886
North bounding coordinate: 43.954964
South bounding coordinate: 43.954964
Elevation
Minimum: 1850
Maximum: 1850
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 5
West bounding coordinate: -71.718826
East bounding coordinate: -71.718826
North bounding coordinate: 43.959530
South bounding coordinate: 43.959530
Elevation
Minimum: 2200
Maximum: 2200
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 6
West bounding coordinate: -71.736122
East bounding coordinate: -71.736122
North bounding coordinate: 43.956898
South bounding coordinate: 43.956898
Elevation
Minimum: 2450
Maximum: 2450
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 7
West bounding coordinate: -71.734261
East bounding coordinate: -71.734261
North bounding coordinate: 43.953083
South bounding coordinate: 43.953083
Elevation
Minimum: 1980
Maximum: 1980
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 8
West bounding coordinate: -71.729630
East bounding coordinate: -71.729630
North bounding coordinate: 43.951141
South bounding coordinate: 43.951141
Elevation
Minimum: 1680
Maximum: 1680
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 9
West bounding coordinate: -71.743134
East bounding coordinate: -71.743134
North bounding coordinate: 43.956051
South bounding coordinate: 43.956051
Elevation
Minimum: 2500
Maximum: 2500
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 10
West bounding coordinate: -71.739853
East bounding coordinate: -71.739853
North bounding coordinate: 43.952545
South bounding coordinate: 43.952545
Elevation
Minimum: 2200
Maximum: 2200
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 11
West bounding coordinate: -71.735443
East bounding coordinate: -71.735443
North bounding coordinate: 43.950092
South bounding coordinate: 43.950092
Elevation
Minimum: 1800
Maximum: 1800
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 12
West bounding coordinate: -71.766586
East bounding coordinate: -71.766586
North bounding coordinate: 43.927490
South bounding coordinate: 43.927490
Elevation
Minimum: 2030
Maximum: 2030
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 13
West bounding coordinate: -71.770317
East bounding coordinate: -71.770317
North bounding coordinate: 43.920696
South bounding coordinate: 43.920696
Elevation
Minimum: 2510
Maximum: 2510
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 14
West bounding coordinate: -71.766808
East bounding coordinate: -71.766808
North bounding coordinate: 43.920692
South bounding coordinate: 43.920692
Elevation
Minimum: 2390
Maximum: 2390
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 15
West bounding coordinate: -71.762962
East bounding coordinate: -71.762962
North bounding coordinate: 43.922684
South bounding coordinate: 43.922684
Elevation
Minimum: 2530
Maximum: 2530
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 16
West bounding coordinate: -71.768112
East bounding coordinate: -71.768112
North bounding coordinate: 43.915970
South bounding coordinate: 43.915970
Elevation
Minimum: 2820
Maximum: 2820
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 17
West bounding coordinate: -71.758690
East bounding coordinate: -71.758690
North bounding coordinate: 43.918678
South bounding coordinate: 43.918678
Elevation
Minimum: 2930
Maximum: 2930
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 19
West bounding coordinate: -71.759903
East bounding coordinate: -71.759903
North bounding coordinate: 43.929214
South bounding coordinate: 43.929214
Elevation
Minimum: 1950
Maximum: 1950
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 20
West bounding coordinate: -71.758179
East bounding coordinate: -71.758179
North bounding coordinate: 43.923462
South bounding coordinate: 43.923462
Elevation
Minimum: 2600
Maximum: 2600
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 21
West bounding coordinate: -71.752663
East bounding coordinate: -71.752663
North bounding coordinate: 43.923042
South bounding coordinate: 43.923042
Elevation
Minimum: 2620
Maximum: 2620
(Unit: foot)
Rain gage 22 (Headquarters location)
West bounding coordinate: -71.701859
East bounding coordinate: -71.701859
North bounding coordinate: 43.943943
South bounding coordinate: 43.943943
Elevation
Minimum: 830
Maximum: 830
(Unit: foot)
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Snow course data have been collected approximately weekly at a network of standard rain gages at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest from 1956 to the present when there was snow on the ground. Snow courses are located near each of the standard rain gage openings and are numbered according to the rain gage. Each snow course is a forested area of about 1/4 ha.
SAMPLING DESIGN
Each measurement consists of ten sample points 2 meters apart along a line. On the next date, a parallel line is used, 2 meters from the previous line. At each point, snow depth and water content are measured using a Mt. Rose snow tube. The ten snow depth measurements are averaged.
SNOW COURSE WATERSHED LOCATIONS
Snow course sampling transects are located adjacent to the standard rain gages (SRG) and are distributed in the watersheds as follows:
Watershed 1: SRG 1, 2, 3
Watershed 3: SRG 4, 5
Watershed 4: SRG 6, 7, 8
Watershed 6: SRG 9, 10, 11
Watershed 7: SRG 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
Watershed 8: SRG 17, 19, 20, 21
Watershed 9: SRG 23, 24, 25
Headquarters: SRG 22
REFERENCES
  • Bailey, A.S., Hornbeck, J.W., Campbell, J.L., and Eagar, C. 2003. Hydrometeorological database for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: 1955-2000. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-305. 36 pp.Newtown Square, PA., U.S., USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station.
  • Campbell, J.L., Driscoll, C.T., Eagar, C., Likens, G.E., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Fahey, T.J., Hamburg, S.P., Holmes, R.T., Bailey, A.S., and Buso, D.C. 2007. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-17. 41 pp.Newtown Square, PA., U.S., USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: snod.txt
Description: Snow depth data from snow course measurements at Hubbard Brook LTER
Notes on Data: NOTES ON DATA 1. Snow water equivalent units are in tenths of inch (i.e. 24 = 2.4 inch). 2. Values of 0 show that no snow was present. Values of -99 indicate that snow was not measured at that station. 3. The number of snow courses measured in any year has varied, first as new locations were added, and then as the network was reduced to save time. 4. Watershed 2 cutting in 1965 did not affect snowcourses. 5. Watershed 4 cutting in 1970-74 eliminated forest over snowcourses 6, 7, and 8. 6. Snowcourse 6 was moved into adjacent watershed 5. the others had already been dropped. 7. Watershed 5 cutting in 1984 destroyed the new snowcourse 6. Snowcourse 9 replaced it. There had been little difference between them for the 4 years of mutual record. 8. Regression analysis after 1967 determined which southfacing snowcourses to drop. Similar analysis was done after 1973 for the northfacing side. 9. After 1983 a decision was made to continue only two snowcourses on each side. One low elevation and one high elevation course were chosen on each side. 10. Snow course 15 is windblown and is not a representative site. The data is physically stored at the USDA Forest Service, Durham, NH and was last updated in March 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1WINTERThe year in which most of the snow-covered period fallsYYYYnnone
2DATESample dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
3STA1Snow depth at gage 1oneTenthInchn
-99
4STA2Snow depth at gage 2oneTenthInchn
-99
5STA3Snow depth at gage 3oneTenthInchn
-99
6STA4Snow depth at gage 4oneTenthInchn
-99
7STA5Snow depth at gage 5oneTenthInchn
-99
8STA6Snow depth at gage 6oneTenthInchn
-99
9STA7Snow depth at gage 7oneTenthInchn
-99
10STA8Snow depth at gage 8oneTenthInchn
-99
11STA9Snow depth at gage 9oneTenthInchn
-99
12STA10Snow depth at gage 10oneTenthInchn
-99
13STA11Snow depth at gage 11oneTenthInchn
-99
14STA12Snow depth at gage 12oneTenthInchn
-99
15STA13Snow depth at gage 13oneTenthInchn
-99
16STA14Snow depth at gage 14oneTenthInchn
-99
17STA15Snow depth at gage 15oneTenthInchn
-99
18STA16Snow depth at gage 16oneTenthInchn
-99
19STA17Snow depth at gage 17oneTenthInchn
-99
20STA19Snow depth at gage 19oneTenthInchn
-99
21STA20Snow depth at gage 20oneTenthInchn
-99
22STA21Snow depth at gage 21oneTenthInchn
-99
23STAHQSnow depth at HeadquartersoneTenthInchn
-99


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
STA1
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA2
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA3
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA4
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA5
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA6
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA7
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA8
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA9
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA10
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA11
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA12
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA13
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA14
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA15
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA16
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA17
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA19
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA20
-99
Data missing or not taken
STA21
-99
Data missing or not taken
STAHQ
-99
Data missing or not taken