Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (USDA Forest Service): Daily Streamflow by Watershed, 1956 - present
TITLE
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (USDA Forest Service): Daily Streamflow by Watershed, 1956 - present
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
John Campbell
USDA Forest Service
271 Mast Rd.
Durham, NH 03824
USA

Phone: (603)-868-7643
OTHERS INVOLVED
Amey Bailey
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Nicholas Grant
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
ABSTRACT:
Streamflow at 9 watersheds within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest has been measured continuously from as early as 1955. Streams are gaged with V-notch weirs at the outlet of each watershed. Height of water behind the weir increases with increased streamflow and is recorded by means of a float attached mechanically to a pen on a spring-wound strip-chart recorder. Gage height is converted to streamflow rate by calibration factors and then integrated to generate daily streamflow. Streamflow rate is measured as volume per unit time(L/s) and is proportional to the watershed area. Beginning January 1, 2013, instantaneous streamflow data (and derived daily streamflow) are measured by electronic sensors, and data are provisional as the transition from chart to digital data collection is still under evaluation. Data may be updated before they are finalized. Please contact the dataset creator prior to data use/publication. Daily streamflow data are derived from the instantaneous streamflow record, and additional information (quality control flagging and gapfilling) can be found in that record http://www.hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=1
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
discharge, ecosystems, flow, forests, gage, gauge, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, hydrology, streamflow, streams, water, watersheds, weir.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
1956
END DATE
2014
LOCATION
Weir 1
West bounding coordinate: -71.726501
East bounding coordinate: -71.726501
North bounding coordinate: 43.952034
South bounding coordinate: 43.952034
Weir 2
West bounding coordinate: -71.724174
East bounding coordinate: -71.724174
North bounding coordinate: 43.953358
South bounding coordinate: 43.953358
Weir 3
West bounding coordinate: -71.722816
East bounding coordinate: -71.722816
North bounding coordinate: 43.954872
South bounding coordinate: 43.954872
Weir 4
West bounding coordinate: -71.725792
East bounding coordinate: -71.725792
North bounding coordinate: 43.950176
South bounding coordinate: 43.950176
Weir 5
West bounding coordinate: -71.731918
East bounding coordinate: -71.731918
North bounding coordinate: 43.948845
South bounding coordinate: 43.948845
Weir 6
West bounding coordinate: -71.735641
East bounding coordinate: -71.735641
North bounding coordinate: 43.949940
South bounding coordinate: 43.949940
Weir 7
West bounding coordinate: -71.767075
East bounding coordinate: -71.767075
North bounding coordinate: 43.927509
South bounding coordinate: 43.927509
Weir 8
West bounding coordinate: -71.759521
East bounding coordinate: -71.759521
North bounding coordinate: 43.929436
South bounding coordinate: 43.929436
Weir 9
West bounding coordinate: -71.747185
East bounding coordinate: -71.747185
North bounding coordinate: 43.926014
South bounding coordinate: 43.926014
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
All gages are on first or second order tributaries of Hubbard Brook. Watersheds 1 through 6 are adjacent south-facing watersheds ordered from west to east as 6, 5, 4, 1, 2, 3. Watersheds 7, 8 and 9 are adjacent north-facing watersheds.
SAMPLE DESIGN
Continuous streamflow is measured at 9 stream gaging stations, at the foot of Watersheds 1 through 9. Each gage consists of a 90 degree or a 120 degree sharp-crested V-notch weir. Gages 5 through 8 have a San Dimas Flume in series with the V-notch weir. Water level in the V-notch stilling basin is recorded continuously on Stevens A-35 streamflow recorders. Water level in the flumes is recorded, when it is high enough, by Belfort FW-1 recorders. During winter, plywood hoods are placed over the V-notches and propane gas heaters keep V-notches, flumes, and wells ice-free. The analog A-35 charts are digitized at Hubbard Brook using a Summagraphics digitizer. Time ratios are arbitrarily selected by the operator, with a minimum of four per day. When flow is higher than the V-notches, an estimated equivalent V-notch gage height is made, either from the gage height in the weir rectangular section, or from the flume record, or by comparison with other gages. This value is then entered via the digitizer menu. Gage heights for V-notch weirs and flumes are converted to volume of dishcarge using standard, published equations. V-notches have been manually calibrated for gage heights < 0.2 ft. (60 mm). The time discharge pairs are converted to streamflow rate at each digitized time and then integrated to daily and monthly streamflow.
CALCULATIONS
HBEF daily stream flow for each of the nine gaged water sheds is published in units of mm/day. This measurement is a depth (mm) of water over the entire watershed. Conversion factors and the formulas for converting from ft3/sec to mm/day and from mm/day to ft3/sec are provided.
WS1: 29.20 acres = 1,271,952.0 ft2
WS2: 38.58 acres = 1,680,544.8 ft2
WS3: 104.71 acres = 4,561,167.6 ft2
WS4: 89.215 acres = 3,886,205.4 ft2
WS5: 54.05 acres = 2,354,418.0 ft2
WS6: 32.69 acres = 1,423,976.4 ft2
WS7: 191.18 acres = 8,327,800.8 ft2
WS8: 146.70 acres = 6,390,252.0 ft2
WS9: 168.90 acres = 7,357,284.0 ft2

Converting ft3/sec to mm/day (mm is depth over entire watershed area):
WS1: 1 ft3/sec * 1/1,271,952.0 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 20.70 mm/day
WS2: 1 ft3/sec * 1/1,680,544.8 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 15.67 mm/day
WS3: 1 ft3/sec * 1/4,561,167.6 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 5.77 mm/day
WS4: 1 ft3/sec * 1/3,886,205.4 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 6.78 mm/day
WS5: 1 ft3/sec * 1/2,354,418.0 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 11.19 mm/day
WS6: 1 ft3/sec * 1/1,423,976.4 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 18.49 mm/day
WS7: 1 ft3/sec * 1/8,327,800.8 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 3.16 mm/day
WS8: 1 ft3/sec * 1/6,390,252.0 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 4.12 mm/day
WS9: 1 ft3/sec * 1/7,357,284.0 ft2 * 86,400 sec/day *12inches/ft * 25.4 mm/inch = 3.58 mm/day

Converting mm/day to ft3/sec:
WS1: 1 mm/day * 1,271,952.0 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .0483 ft3/sec
WS2: 1 mm/day * 1,680,544.8 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .0638 ft3/sec
WS3: 1 mm/day * 4,561,167.6 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .1732 ft3/sec
WS4: 1 mm/day * 3,886,205.4 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .1476 ft3/sec
WS5: 1 mm/day * 2,354,418.0 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .0894 ft3/sec
WS6: 1 mm/day * 1,423,976.4 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .0541 ft3/sec
WS7: 1 mm/day * 8,327,800.8 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .3162 ft3/sec
WS8: 1 mm/day * 6,390,252.0 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .2427 ft3/sec
WS9: 1 mm/day * 7,357,284.0 ft2 * day/86,400 sec * ft/12inches * inch/25.4 mm = .2794 ft3/sec
REFERENCES
  • Bailey, A.S., Hornbeck, J.W., Campbell, J.L., and Eagar, C. 2003. Hydrometeorological database for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: 1955-2000. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-305. 36 pp.Newtown Square, PA., U.S., USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station.
  • Campbell, J.L., Driscoll, C.T., Eagar, C., Likens, G.E., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, C.E., Fahey, T.J., Hamburg, S.P., Holmes, R.T., Bailey, A.S., and Buso, D.C. 2007. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-17. 41 pp.Newtown Square, PA., U.S., USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., Martin, C.W., and Eagar, C. 1997. Summary of water yield experiments at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Can. J. For. Res. 27:2043-2052.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., Pierce, R.S., and Federer, C.A. 1970. Streamflow changes after forest clearing in New England. Water Resour. Res. 6(4):1124-1132.
  • Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Pierce, R.S., Eaton, J.S., and Johnson, N.M. 1977. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 146 pp.
  • Reinhart, K.G., and Pierce, R.S. 1964. Stream-gaging stations for research on small watersheds. USDA Forest Service Handbook 268. 37 pp.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: swd_all.txt
Description: Daily streamflow by watershed at Hubbard Brook LTER
Notes on Data: WS 2 from 1958 through 1963 has been recalculated from punched cards and differs somewhat from older printed output. WS 7 data are missing for 4/14/65 - 4/30/65. The recorder chart is lost. This data has not been estimated. The STRFLO program was not run for this month, so the entire month is missing.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1DATESample dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
2WS_1Streamflow at watershed 1millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
3WS_2Streamflow at watershed 2millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
4WS_3Streamflow at watershed 3millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
5WS_4Streamflow at watershed 4millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
6WS_5Streamflow at watershed 5millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
7WS_6Streamflow at watershed 6millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
8WS_7Streamflow at watershed 7millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
9WS_8Streamflow at watershed 8millimeterPerDayn
-99.000
10WS_9Streamflow at watershed 9millimeterPerDayn
-99.000


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
WS_1
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_2
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_3
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_4
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_5
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_6
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_7
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_8
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time
WS_9
-99.000
Data missing or not taken for this watershed at this time