Chemistry of freely-draining soil solutions at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Watershed 1, 1996 - present.
TITLE
Chemistry of freely-draining soil solutions at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Watershed 1, 1996 - present.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Charles Driscoll
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
220 Hinds Hall
Syracuse, NY 13244
USA

Phone: (315) 443-2311
ABSTRACT:
Tension-free lysimeters were installed in three soil horizons at 13 locations within Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Watershed 1, representing the variation in elevation and forest type of the watershed. At each location, the organic horizon and the B horizon were selected for lysimeter placement. Soil solution samples were collected approximately monthly and analyzed for base cations, soluble anions, trace metals, nitrogen and carbon.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
aluminum, ammonium, base cations, calcium, carbon, chemistry, chloride, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, fluoride, forests, HBEF Watershed 1, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, leachate, lysimeter, magnesium, nitrate, nitrogen, potassium, silica, sodium, soil horizons, soil water, soil, sulfate, water, watersheds.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
inorganic nutrients, organic matter.
BEGIN DATE
1996
END DATE
2014
LOCATION
HBEF watershed 1 (WS1)
West bounding coordinate: -71.731339
East bounding coordinate: -71.726311
North bounding coordinate: 43.959286
South bounding coordinate: 43.952053
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 1 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.730084
East bounding coordinate: -71.730084
North bounding coordinate: 43.958547
South bounding coordinate: 43.958547
Elevation
Minimum: 715
Maximum: 715
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 2 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.729339
East bounding coordinate: -71.729339
North bounding coordinate: 43.958961
South bounding coordinate: 43.958961
Elevation
Minimum: 688
Maximum: 688
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 3 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728717
East bounding coordinate: -71.728717
North bounding coordinate: 43.958168
South bounding coordinate: 43.958168
Elevation
Minimum: 670
Maximum: 670
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 4 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728527
East bounding coordinate: -71.728527
North bounding coordinate: 43.956628
South bounding coordinate: 43.956628
Elevation
Minimum: 610
Maximum: 610
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 5 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728245
East bounding coordinate: -71.728245
North bounding coordinate: 43.955495
South bounding coordinate: 43.955495
Elevation
Minimum: 555
Maximum: 555
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 6 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.727725
East bounding coordinate: -71.727725
North bounding coordinate: 43.954012
South bounding coordinate: 43.954012
Elevation
Minimum: 527
Maximum: 527
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 7 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.725788
East bounding coordinate: -71.725788
North bounding coordinate: 43.952149
South bounding coordinate: 43.952149
Elevation
Minimum: 468
Maximum: 468
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 8 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.727364
East bounding coordinate: -71.727364
North bounding coordinate: 43.954334
South bounding coordinate: 43.954334
Elevation
Minimum: 521
Maximum: 521
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 9 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.726209
East bounding coordinate: -71.726209
North bounding coordinate: 43.954602
South bounding coordinate: 43.954602
Elevation
Minimum: 518
Maximum: 518
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 10 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728237
East bounding coordinate: -71.728237
North bounding coordinate: 43.956689
South bounding coordinate: 43.956689
Elevation
Minimum: 594
Maximum: 594
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 11 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728141
East bounding coordinate: -71.728141
North bounding coordinate: 43.958223
South bounding coordinate: 43.958223
Elevation
Minimum: 684
Maximum: 684
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 12 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728966
East bounding coordinate: -71.728966
North bounding coordinate: 43.957808
South bounding coordinate: 43.957808
Elevation
Minimum: 651
Maximum: 651
(Unit: meter)
Watershed 1, Lysimeter 13 Location
West bounding coordinate: -71.728948
East bounding coordinate: -71.728948
North bounding coordinate: 43.958869
South bounding coordinate: 43.958869
Elevation
Minimum: 698
Maximum: 698
(Unit: meter)
SITE DESCRIPTION
Tension-free lysimeters were installed in three soil horizons at 13 locations within Watershed 1 representing the variation in elevation and forest type of the watershed. At each location, the organic horizon and the B horizon were selected for lysimeter placement. Soil horizons varied across the watershed: O horizons are classified as Oa, or Oe; B horizons are classified as Bh, Bhs1, Bhs3, Bs, or Bs2. Eleven of the 13 sites have lysimeters in the organic soil and two depths in the B horizons. Two sites (L1 and L2) only have lysimeters for the organic soil and one B mineral soil horizon (Bs). Elevations range from 468 to 715 meters.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The lysimeters were constructed from either polyethylene funnels filled wiith acid-washed silica sand that drain into 1-L polyethylene containers or rectangular polyethylene containers filled with acid-washed Teflon beads that drain into 2-L polyethylene bottles. At each site, lysimeters were carefully installed in the wall of excavated soil pits, immediately below the Oa /Oe and Bh/Bhs1/Bhs3 horizons and within the lower Bs/Bs2 horizon. Soil pits were backfilled to prevent accumulation of water and to eliminate freezing during winter months. Soil solution samples were collected approximately monthly in acid-washed polyethylene bottles and refrigerated at 4oC
LABORATORY PROCEDURES
The pH of samples is measured potentiometrically with a glass electrode. The acid neutralizing capacity is measured using Gran titration with an auto-titrator. The major anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-) are measured using ion chromatography. Prior to 2002, F- was measured with an ion-selective electrode. Base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), total Al, and H4SiO4 (as total dissolved Si) are measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to 2004 the cations and total Al were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AA). Prior to 2006, the H4SiO4 concentration was measured colorimetrically. The ammonium and monomeric aluminum concentrations are measured colorimetrically. Total nitrogen (TN) is measured using combustion oxidation with chemiluminescence detection. Prior to 2006 TN was measured using a colorimetric method. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is analyzed using infrared detection. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is analyzed using infrared detection following persulfate oxidation.
REFERENCES
  • Cho, Y. 2010. Biogeochemical dynamics of oxidized and reduced iron at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Dissertation, Syracuse University.
  • Cho, Y., Driscoll, C.T., Johnson, C.E., and Siccama, T.G. 2010. Chemical changes in soil and soil solution after calcium silicate addition to a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 100(1-3):3-20.
  • Cho, Y., Driscoll, C.T., Johnson, C.E., Blum, J.D., and Fahey, T.J. 2012. Watershed-level responses to calcium silicate treatment in a northern hardwood forest. Ecosystems 15(3):416-434.
  • Fuss, C.B. 2009. Biogeochemical dynamics of oxidized and reduced iron at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Masters of Science, Syracuse University.
  • Fuss, C.B., Driscoll, C.T., Johnson, C.E., Petras, R.J., and Fahey, T.J. 2011. Dynamics of Oxidized and Reduced Iron in a Northern Hardwood Forest. Biogeochemistry 104(1-3 (July)):103-119.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: w1lysim.txt
Description: Soil solution chemistry at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest on Watershed 1, measured with tension-free lysimeters
Notes on Data: Current detection limits for the Driscoll laboratory: Na (0.015 umol/L), K (0.12 umol/L), Ca (0.030 umol/L), Mg (0.0032 umol/L), Alt (0.0026 umol/L), Alm (1.3 umol/L), Alo (1.3 umol/L), NH4 (0.55 umol/L), H4SiO2 (3 umol/L), Cl (0.55 umol/L), NO3 (0.85 umol/L), SO4 (0.53 umol/L), F (0.097 umol/L), DIC (20 umol/L), DOC (20 umol/L), TN (0.81 umol/L). It is suggested to dataset users to use a value of one half the detection limit when a value for a solute is less than the detection limit. The data is physically located at the Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY and was last updated in March, 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1dateSample dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
2WSWatershed identification numbernoneynone
3ElevElevationnoneynone
4HorSoil horizonnoneynone
5pHpH measurementdimensionlessn
-999.99
-888.88
6ANCAcid Neutralizing CapacitymicroEquivalentPerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
7H4SiO4Dissolved silica concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
8Na+Sodium concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
9K+Potassium concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
10Ca2+Calcium concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
11CaFLAGNotes on calcium measurementsnoneynone
12Mg2+Magnesium concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
13AltTotal aluminum concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
14AlmTotal monomeric aluminum concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
15AloOrganic monomeric aluminum in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
16NH4+Ammonium concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
-777.77
17F-Total fluoride concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
18Cl-Chloride concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
19SO4=Sulfate concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
20NO3-Nitrate concentration in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
21DICDissolved inorganic carbon in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
22DOCDissolved organic carbon in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88
23TNTotal nitrogen in umol/LmicroMolePerLitern
-999.99
-888.88

CODES

Variable: WS
Code
Description
1
Watershed 1
Variable: Elev
Code
Description
1
715 meter lysimeter site
2
688 meter lysimeter site
3
670 meter lysimeter site
4
610 meter lysimeter site
5
555 meter lysimeter site
6
527 meter lysimeter site
7
468 meter lysimeter site
8
521 meter lysimeter site
9
518 meter lysimeter site
10
594 meter lysimeter site
11
684 meter lysimeter site
12
651 meter lysimeter site
13
698 meter lysimeter site
Variable: Hor
Code
Description
Oa
Oa soil horizon
Oe
Oe soil horizon
Bh
Bh soil horizon
Bhs1
Bhs1 soil horizon
Bhs3
Bhs3 soil horizon
Bs
Bs soil horizon
Bs2
Bs2 soil horizon
Variable: CaFLAG
Code
Description
Y
Flagged. Data currently being reanalyzed. For informational purposes only.
N
No flag. Data analysis complete

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
pH
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
ANC
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
H4SiO4
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Na+
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
K+
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Ca2+
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Mg2+
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Alt
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Alm
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Alo
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
NH4+
-999.99
-888.88
-777.77
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Analyte concentration below limit of detection
F-
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
Cl-
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
SO4=
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
NO3-
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
DIC
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
DOC
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis
TN
-999.99
-888.88
Data missing or not taken at this time
Sample volume too small for analysis