Soil moisture and temperature along an elevation gradient at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 2010 - present.
TITLE
Soil moisture and temperature along an elevation gradient at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 2010 - present.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Peter M. Groffman
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Box AB
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA

Phone: (845) 677-5343
OTHERS INVOLVED
Jorge Duran
Jennifer L. Morse
Donald C. Buso
Tammy Wooster
ABSTRACT:
Soil temperature and soil moisture have been measured at multiple locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), as part of a study of the relationships between snow depth, soil freezing and nutrient cycling (http://www.ecostudies.org/people_sci_groffman_snow_summary.html). In October 2010, we established 6, 20 x 20-m plots (intensive plots) and 14 10 x 10-m plots (extensive plots) along an elevation gradient, with eight of the plots on north-facing slopes and twelve on south-facing slopes. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at hourly intervals on these plots beginning in November 2010. Six locations were discontinued in September 2012 (E04, E05, E06, E11-B, E13, and E14).
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
forests, gradient, HBEF snow gradient study, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, nutrient cycling, soil, soil moisture, soil temperature.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
2010-11-17
END DATE
2013-05-09
LOCATION
E1: Extensive Plot 1. Aspect: North. UTM: X=277410, Y=4867546
West bounding coordinate: -71.77291084
East bounding coordinate: -71.77291084
North bounding coordinate: 43.92738579
South bounding coordinate: 43.92738579
Elevation
Minimum: 588
Maximum: 588
(Unit: meter)
E2: Extensive Plot 2. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277111, Y= 4867074
West bounding coordinate: -71.77643367
East bounding coordinate: -71.77643367
North bounding coordinate: 43.92305067
South bounding coordinate: 43.92305067
Elevation
Minimum: 687
Maximum: 687
(Unit: meter)
E3: Extensive Plot 3. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 276485, Y= 4850906
West bounding coordinate: -71.77745584
East bounding coordinate: -71.77745584
North bounding coordinate: 43.91985666
South bounding coordinate: 43.91985666
Elevation
Minimum: 770
Maximum: 770
(Unit: meter)
E4: Extensive Plot 4. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277986, Y= 4867455
West bounding coordinate: -71.76570567
East bounding coordinate: -71.76570567
North bounding coordinate: 43.92674122
South bounding coordinate: 43.92674122
Elevation
Minimum: 632
Maximum: 632
(Unit: meter)
E5: Extensive Plot 5. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 278055, Y= 4866940
West bounding coordinate: -71.76463237
East bounding coordinate: -71.76463237
North bounding coordinate: 43.92213059
South bounding coordinate: 43.92213059
Elevation
Minimum: 724
Maximum: 724
(Unit: meter)
E6: Extensive Plot 6. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 281632, Y= 4870329
West bounding coordinate: -71.72151804
East bounding coordinate: -71.72151804
North bounding coordinate: 43.95368099
South bounding coordinate: 43.95368099
Elevation
Minimum: 536
Maximum: 536
(Unit: meter)
E7: Extensive Plot 7. Aspect: South. UTM: UTM: X= 281869, Y= 4870458
West bounding coordinate: -71.71862125
East bounding coordinate: -71.71862125
North bounding coordinate: 43.95490408
South bounding coordinate: 43.95490408
Elevation
Minimum: 609
Maximum: 609
(Unit: meter)
E8: Extensive Plot 8. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281785, Y= 4870899
West bounding coordinate: -71.71984434
East bounding coordinate: -71.71984434
North bounding coordinate: 43.95885229
South bounding coordinate: 43.95885229
Elevation
Minimum: 630
Maximum: 630
(Unit: meter)
E9: Extensive Plot 9. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281650, Y= 4871108
West bounding coordinate: -71.72161276
East bounding coordinate: -71.72161276
North bounding coordinate: 43.96068944
South bounding coordinate: 43.96068944
Elevation
Minimum: 670
Maximum: 670
(Unit: meter)
E10: Extensive Plot 10. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281068, Y= 4870840
West bounding coordinate: -71.72874928
East bounding coordinate: -71.72874928
North bounding coordinate: 43.95810127
South bounding coordinate: 43.95810127
Elevation
Minimum: 698
Maximum: 698
(Unit: meter)
E11: Extensive Plot 11. Abandonded in Fall 2011 and replaced with 11-B. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 279820, Y= 4870325
West bounding coordinate: -71.74407265
East bounding coordinate: -71.74407265
North bounding coordinate: 43.95310239
South bounding coordinate: 43.95310239
Elevation
Minimum: 706
Maximum: 706
(Unit: meter)
E11-B: Extensive Plot 11-B. Replacement for E11 started in Fall 2011. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 279957, Y= 4870590
West bounding coordinate: -71.74247222
East bounding coordinate: -71.74247222
North bounding coordinate: 43.95552778
South bounding coordinate: 43.95552778
Elevation
Minimum: 766
Maximum: 766
(Unit: meter)
E12: Extensive Plot 12. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 290093, Y= 4870317
West bounding coordinate: -71.74066667
East bounding coordinate: -71.74066667
North bounding coordinate: 43.95311111
South bounding coordinate: 43.95311111
Elevation
Minimum: 688
Maximum: 688
(Unit: meter)
E13: Extensive Plot 13. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 280252, Y= 4870034
West bounding coordinate: -71.73857446
East bounding coordinate: -71.73857446
North bounding coordinate: 43.95061447
South bounding coordinate: 43.95061447
Elevation
Minimum: 601
Maximum: 601
(Unit: meter)
E14: Extensive Plot 14. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281277, Y= 4870177
West bounding coordinate: -71.72587194
East bounding coordinate: -71.72587194
North bounding coordinate: 43.95220301
South bounding coordinate: 43.95220301
Elevation
Minimum: 487
Maximum: 487
(Unit: meter)
IH1: Intensive High Elevation Plot 1. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277790, Y= 4868286
West bounding coordinate: -71.7684914
East bounding coordinate: -71.7684914
North bounding coordinate: 43.93415543
South bounding coordinate: 43.93415543
Elevation
Minimum: 539
Maximum: 539
(Unit: meter)
IH2: Intensive High Elevation Plot 2. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277888, Y= 4868064
West bounding coordinate: -71.76717913
East bounding coordinate: -71.76717913
North bounding coordinate: 43.93218854
South bounding coordinate: 43.93218854
Elevation
Minimum: 555
Maximum: 555
(Unit: meter)
IH3: Intensive High Elevation Plot 3. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 278314, Y= 4867892
West bounding coordinate: -71.76180633
East bounding coordinate: -71.76180633
North bounding coordinate: 43.93077007
South bounding coordinate: 43.93077007
Elevation
Minimum: 595
Maximum: 595
(Unit: meter)
IL1: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 1. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 282144, Y= 4869478
West bounding coordinate: -71.71479424
East bounding coordinate: -71.71479424
North bounding coordinate: 43.94617659
South bounding coordinate: 43.94617659
Elevation
Minimum: 375
Maximum: 375
(Unit: meter)
IL2: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 2. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281685, Y= 4869704
West bounding coordinate: -71.72060047
East bounding coordinate: -71.72060047
North bounding coordinate: 43.94807308
South bounding coordinate: 43.94807308
Elevation
Minimum: 401
Maximum: 401
(Unit: meter)
IL3: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 3. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 280887, Y= 4869966
West bounding coordinate: -71.73064174
East bounding coordinate: -71.73064174
North bounding coordinate: 43.95019236
South bounding coordinate: 43.95019236
Elevation
Minimum: 511
Maximum: 511
(Unit: meter)
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Soil temperature and soil moisture have been measured at multiple locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), as part of a study of the relationships between snow depth, soil freezing and nutrient cycling (http://www.ecostudies.org/people_sci_groffman_snow_summary.html). In October 2010, we established 6 20 x 20-m plots (intensive plots) and 14 10 x 10-m plots (extensive plots) along an elevation gradient, with eight of the plots on north-facing slopes and twelve on south-facing slopes. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at hourly intervals on these plots beginning in November 2010. Six locations were discontinued in September 2012 (E04, E05, E06, E11-B, E13, and E14).
DATA DESCRIPTION
In each plot, we installed two replicate Decagon soil moisture and temperature probes (Model 5TM) to 5 cm depth. Decagon 5TM probes record soil moisture as volumetric water content (VWC; reported as % based on m3/m3) calculated using the Topp et al. (1980; Equation 1) from apparent dielectric permittivity (Ɛa) ranging from 1 in air to 80 in water (Decagon Devices 2010). The probes have a resolution of 0.08% VWC from 0-50% VWC and an accuracy of 3% in typical mineral soils with solution electrical conductivity less than 10 dS/m and 15% from 40-80% VWC. The temperature range is from -40 to 50 oC, with a resolution of 0.1 oC and an accuracy of 1 oC. Measurements were recorded hourly using a Decagon Em50 datalogger (14 extensive plots) or Campbell Scientific datalogger (6 intensive plots). We used linear regressions to data from nearby installations for periods that preceded and followed the missing data, to fill gaps in the data sets. Outliers were excluded before calculating the hourly mean of the two probes for each plot.
Equation 1: VWC = 4.3x10-6 . Ɛa 3 - 5.5x10-4 . Ɛa 2 + 2.92x10-2 . Ɛa - 5.3x10-2
REFERENCES
  • Decagon Devices 2010. 5TM Operator’s Manual. http://www.decagon.com/assets/Manuals/Manual-5TM.pdf, Pullman, WA.
  • Topp, G.C., David, J.L., and Annan, A.P. 1980. Electromagnetic Determination of Soil Water Content: Measurement in Coaxial Transmission Lines. Water Resources Research 16(3):574-582.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
People are free to use these data for informational purposes but they cannot be used in any publication without permission of the author.



Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.



CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: snowgrad_soil.txt
Description: Soil moisture and temperature along an elevation gradient. Volumetric water content is reported as percent, calculated as cubic meter of water per cubic meter of soil
Notes on Data: NOTES ON DATA Interested parties are free to use these data for informational purposes but they cannot be used in any publication without permission of the author. The data is physically located at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, NY and was updated in March 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1Coll_Date_TimeSample collection date and timeYYYY-MM-DD-TT:TTnnone
2E01_VWCExtensive plot 1, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
3E02_VWCExtensive Plot 2, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
4E03_VWCExtensive Plot 3, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
5E04_VWCExtensive Plot 4, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
6E05_VWCExtensive Plot 5, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
7E06_VWCExtensive Plot 6, Volumetric Water Content, percentdimensionlessn
-9999
8E07_VWCExtensive Plot 7, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
9E08_VWCExtensive Plot 8, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
10E09_VWCExtensive Plot 9, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
11E10_VWCExtensive Plot 10, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
12E11_VWCExtensive Plot 11, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
13E1B_VWCExtensive Plot 11B, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
14E12_VWCExtensive Plot 12, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
15E13_VWCExtensive Plot 13, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
16E14_VWCExtensive Plot 14, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
17IH1_VWCIntensive High Elevation Plot 1, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
18IH2_VWCIntensive High Elevation Plot 2, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
19IH3_VWCIntensive High Elevation Plot 3, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
20IL1_VWCIntensive Low Elevation Plot 1, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
21IL2_VWCIntensive Low Elevation Plot 2, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
22IL3_VWCIntensive Low Elevation Plot 3, Volumetric Water Contentdimensionlessn
-9999
23E01_SoilTempExtensive Plot 1, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
24E02_SoilTempExtensive Plot 2, mean hourly soil temperature, (percent)celciusn
-9999
25E03_SoilTempExtensive Plot 3, mean hourly soil temperature, percentcelciusn
-9999
26E04_SoilTempExtensive Plot 4, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
27E05_SoilTempExtensive Plot 5, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
28E06_SoilTempExtensive Plot 6, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
29E07_SoilTempExtensive Plot 7, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
30E08_SoilTempExtensive Plot 8, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
31E09_SoilTempExtensive Plot 9, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
32E10_SoilTempExtensive Plot 10, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
33E11_SoilTempExtensive Plot 11, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
34E1B_SoilTempExtensive Plot 11B, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
35E12_SoilTempExtensive Plot 12, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
36E13_SoilTempExtensive Plot 13, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
37E14_SoilTempExtensive Plot 14, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
38IH1_SoilTempIntensive High Elevation Plot 1, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
39IH2_SoilTempIntensive High Elevation Plot 2, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
40IH3_SoilTempIntensive High Elevation Plot 3, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
41IL1_SoilTempIntensive Low Elevation Plot 1, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
42IL2_SoilTempIntensive Low Elevation Plot 2, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999
43IL3_SoilTempIntensive Low Elevation Plot 3, mean hourly soil temperaturecelciusn
-9999


MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
E01_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E02_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E03_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E04_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E05_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E06_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E07_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E08_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E09_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E10_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E11_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E1B_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E12_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E13_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E14_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH1_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH2_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH3_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL1_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL2_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL3_VWC
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E01_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E02_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E03_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E04_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E05_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E06_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E07_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E08_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E09_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E10_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E11_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E1B_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E12_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E13_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
E14_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH1_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH2_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IH3_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL1_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL2_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time
IL3_SoilTemp
-9999
Data missing or not taken at this time