Snow depth, soil frost depth and snow water content along an elevation gradient at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.
TITLE
Snow depth, soil frost depth and snow water content along an elevation gradient at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Peter M. Groffman
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Box AB
Millbrook, NY 12545
USA

Phone: (845) 677-5343
OTHERS INVOLVED
Jorge Duran
Jennifer L. Morse
Donald C. Buso
Tammy Wooster
ABSTRACT:
Snow depth, soil frost depth and snow water content have been measured at several locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF). In October 2010, as part of a study of the relationships between snow depth, soil freezing and nutrient cycling (http://www.ecostudies.org/people_sci_groffman_snow_summary.html), we established 6 20 x 20-m plots (intensive plots) and 14 10 x 10-m plots (extensive plots) following an elevation gradient, with eight of the plots facing north and twelve facing south. Snow depth, soil frost and snow water content were measured at approximately biweekly intervals on these plots from the first snowfall through the end of the snowmelt. Snow and frost depth, and snow water content sampling started in December 2010 and is ongoing.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
forests, frost, HBEF snow gradient study, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, nutrient cycling, snow, snow depth, snow water content, soil, soil frost, soil water content.
BEGIN DATE
2010
END DATE
2014
LOCATION
IL1: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 1. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 282144, Y= 4869478
West bounding coordinate: -71.71479424
East bounding coordinate: -71.71479424
North bounding coordinate: 43.94617659
South bounding coordinate: 43.94617659
Elevation
Minimum: 375
Maximum: 375
(Unit: meter)
IL2: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 2. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281685, Y= 4869704
West bounding coordinate: -71.72060047
East bounding coordinate: -71.72060047
North bounding coordinate: 43.94807308
South bounding coordinate: 43.94807308
Elevation
Minimum: 401
Maximum: 401
(Unit: meter)
IL3: Intensive Low Elevation Plot 3. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 280887, Y= 4869966
West bounding coordinate: -71.73064174
East bounding coordinate: -71.73064174
North bounding coordinate: 43.95019236
South bounding coordinate: 43.95019236
Elevation
Minimum: 511
Maximum: 511
(Unit: meter)
IH1: Intensive High Elevation Plot 1. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277790, Y= 4868286
West bounding coordinate: -71.7684914
East bounding coordinate: -71.7684914
North bounding coordinate: 43.93415543
South bounding coordinate: 43.93415543
Elevation
Minimum: 539
Maximum: 539
(Unit: meter)
IH2: Intensive High Elevation Plot 2. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277888, Y= 4868064
West bounding coordinate: -71.76717913
East bounding coordinate: -71.76717913
North bounding coordinate: 43.93218854
South bounding coordinate: 43.93218854
Elevation
Minimum: 555
Maximum: 555
(Unit: meter)
IH3: Intensive High Elevation Plot 3. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 278314, Y= 4867892
West bounding coordinate: -71.76180633
East bounding coordinate: -71.76180633
North bounding coordinate: 43.93077007
South bounding coordinate: 43.93077007
Elevation
Minimum: 595
Maximum: 595
(Unit: meter)
E1: Extensive Plot 1. Aspect: North. UTM: X=277410, Y=4867546
West bounding coordinate: -71.77291084
East bounding coordinate: -71.77291084
North bounding coordinate: 43.92738579
South bounding coordinate: 43.92738579
Elevation
Minimum: 588
Maximum: 588
(Unit: meter)
E2: Extensive Plot 2. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277111, Y= 4867074
West bounding coordinate: -71.77643367
East bounding coordinate: -71.77643367
North bounding coordinate: 43.92305067
South bounding coordinate: 43.92305067
Elevation
Minimum: 687
Maximum: 687
(Unit: meter)
E3: Extensive Plot 3. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 276485, Y= 4850906
West bounding coordinate: -71.77745584
East bounding coordinate: -71.77745584
North bounding coordinate: 43.91985666
South bounding coordinate: 43.91985666
Elevation
Minimum: 770
Maximum: 770
(Unit: meter)
E4: Extensive Plot 4. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 277986, Y= 4867455
West bounding coordinate: -71.76570567
East bounding coordinate: -71.76570567
North bounding coordinate: 43.92674122
South bounding coordinate: 43.92674122
Elevation
Minimum: 632
Maximum: 632
(Unit: meter)
E5: Extensive Plot 5. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 278055, Y= 4866940
West bounding coordinate: -71.76463237
East bounding coordinate: -71.76463237
North bounding coordinate: 43.92213059
South bounding coordinate: 43.92213059
Elevation
Minimum: 724
Maximum: 724
(Unit: meter)
E6: Extensive Plot 6. Aspect: North. UTM: X= 281632, Y= 4870329
West bounding coordinate: -71.72151804
East bounding coordinate: -71.72151804
North bounding coordinate: 43.95368099
South bounding coordinate: 43.95368099
Elevation
Minimum: 536
Maximum: 536
(Unit: meter)
E7: Extensive Plot 7. Aspect: South. UTM: UTM: X= 281869, Y= 4870458
West bounding coordinate: -71.71862125
East bounding coordinate: -71.71862125
North bounding coordinate: 43.95490408
South bounding coordinate: 43.95490408
Elevation
Minimum: 609
Maximum: 609
(Unit: meter)
E8: Extensive Plot 8. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281785, Y= 4870899
West bounding coordinate: -71.71984434
East bounding coordinate: -71.71984434
North bounding coordinate: 43.95885229
South bounding coordinate: 43.95885229
Elevation
Minimum: 630
Maximum: 630
(Unit: meter)
E9: Extensive Plot 9. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281650, Y= 4871108
West bounding coordinate: -71.72161276
East bounding coordinate: -71.72161276
North bounding coordinate: 43.96068944
South bounding coordinate: 43.96068944
Elevation
Minimum: 670
Maximum: 670
(Unit: meter)
E10: Extensive Plot 10. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281068, Y= 4870840
West bounding coordinate: -71.72874928
East bounding coordinate: -71.72874928
North bounding coordinate: 43.95810127
South bounding coordinate: 43.95810127
Elevation
Minimum: 698
Maximum: 698
(Unit: meter)
E11: Extensive Plot 11. Abandonded in Fall 2011 and replaced with 11-B. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 279820, Y= 4870325
West bounding coordinate: -71.74407265
East bounding coordinate: -71.74407265
North bounding coordinate: 43.95310239
South bounding coordinate: 43.95310239
Elevation
Minimum: 706
Maximum: 706
(Unit: meter)
E11-B: Extensive Plot 11-B. Replacement for E11 started in Fall 2011. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 279957, Y= 4870590
West bounding coordinate: -71.74247222
East bounding coordinate: -71.74247222
North bounding coordinate: 43.95552778
South bounding coordinate: 43.95552778
Elevation
Minimum: 766
Maximum: 766
(Unit: meter)
E12: Extensive Plot 12. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 290093, Y= 4870317
West bounding coordinate: -71.74066667
East bounding coordinate: -71.74066667
North bounding coordinate: 43.95311111
South bounding coordinate: 43.95311111
Elevation
Minimum: 688
Maximum: 688
(Unit: meter)
E13: Extensive Plot 13. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 280252, Y= 4870034
West bounding coordinate: -71.73857446
East bounding coordinate: -71.73857446
North bounding coordinate: 43.95061447
South bounding coordinate: 43.95061447
Elevation
Minimum: 601
Maximum: 601
(Unit: meter)
E14: Extensive Plot 14. Aspect: South. UTM: X= 281277, Y= 4870177
West bounding coordinate: -71.72587194
East bounding coordinate: -71.72587194
North bounding coordinate: 43.95220301
South bounding coordinate: 43.95220301
Elevation
Minimum: 487
Maximum: 487
(Unit: meter)
LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Snow depth, soil frost depth and snow water content have been measured at several locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. (HBEF). In October 2010, as part of a study of the relationships between snow depth, soil freezing and nutrient cycling (http://www.ecostudies.org/people_sci_groffman_snow_summary.html), we established 6 20 x 20-m plots (intensive plots) and 14 10 x 10-m plots (extensive plots) following an elevation gradient, with eight of the plots facing north and twelve facing south. Snow depth, soil frost and snow water content were measured at approximately biweekly intervals on these plots from the first snowfall through the end of the snowmelt. Snow and frost depth, and snow water content sampling started in December 2010 and is ongoing.
DATA DESCRIPTION
In each plot we systematically selected three sampling points, all of them separated 9 meters from the center of the plot following north, southeast and southwest directions. In each sampling plot we installed a frost tube (Ricard et al. 1976; Hardy et al. 2001) to measure frost depth. Frost tubes consisted of a caped 1-meter long rigid casing (PVC pipe) inserted into the ground to a soil depth of approximately 0.5 m. Then, a flexible PVC tube was filled with methylene blue dye and inserted into the casing, aligning the top of the dye with the ground surface. To measure frost depth, the flexible, dye-filled tubes are removed from the casing and the length of frozen dye is measured (methylene blue turns translucent when frozen, easing the distinction between frozen and thawed dye). In the sampling points we also used a ‘Federal snow sampling tube’ to measure snow depth and snow water content (water equivalent). This device consists of a 1 5/8" (4.13 cm) i.d. engraved anodized aluminum tube with a cutter end (USFS design criteria). The device is driven through the snow pack to the ground surface, using the engraving to measure the snow depth. Then, the snow sampler is carefully turned and removed to cut and collect a snow core. The snow water content (water equivalent) is then estimated by measuring the length and the weight of the snow core. Measurements of frost and snow depth and snow water content were made at the same time in each sampling point, at approximately biweekly intervals. Plot averages were obtained calculating the arithmetic mean of the three sampling points.
REFERENCES
  • Hardy, J., Groffman, P., and Fitzhugh, R. 2001. Snow depth manipulation and its influence on soil frost and water dynamics in a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 56:151-174.
  • Ricard, J., Tobiasson, W., and Greatorex, A. 1976. The field-assembled frost gage. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Technical Note, Hanover, NH.
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Anyone is free to use these data for informational purposes but they cannot be used in any publication without permission of the author.



Data Use Policy



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Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

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Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: snowgrad_snow.txt
Description: Snow depth, soil frost depth and snow water content along an elevation gradient at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
Notes on Data: NOTES ON DATA Interested parties are free to use these data for informational purposes but they cannot be used in any publication without permission of the Principal Investigator. The data is physically located at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, NY and was updated in March 2013.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1Coll_DateSample collection dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
2PlotSnow gradient sample collection plotsnoneynone
3Frost_DepthFrost depth measured with frost tubecentimetern
-999.99
4Snow_DepthMean snow depthcentimetern
-999.99
5Snow_WaterMean snow water content (water equivalent)centimetern
-999.99

CODES

Variable: Plot
Code
Description
IL1
Intensive Low Elevation Plot 1
IL2
Intensive Low Elevation Plot 2
IL3
Intensive Low Elevation Plot 3
IH1
Intensive High Elevation Plot 1
IH2
Intensive High Elevation Plot 2
IH3
Intensive High Elevation Plot 3
E1
Extensive Plot 1
E2
Extensive Plot 2
E3
Extensive Plot 3
E4
Extensive Plot 4
E5
Extensive Plot 5
E6
Extensive Plot 6
E7
Extensive Plot 7
E8
Extensive Plot 8
E9
Extensive Plot 9
E10
Extensive Plot 10
E11
Extensive Plot 11
E11-B
Extensive Plot 11-B
E12
Extensive Plot 12
E13
Extensive Plot 13
E14
Extensive Plot 14

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
Frost_Depth
-999.99
Data missing or not taken at this time
Snow_Depth
-999.99
Data missing or not taken at this time
Snow_Water
-999.99
Data missing or not taken at this time